7:1 So the Lord said to Moses, “See, I have made you like God 1 to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet. 2 7:2 You are to speak 3 everything I command you, 4 and your brother Aaron is to tell Pharaoh that he must release 5 the Israelites from his land. 7:3 But I will harden 6 Pharaoh’s heart, and although I will multiply 7 my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt, 7:4 Pharaoh will not listen to you. 8 I will reach into 9 Egypt and bring out my regiments, 10 my people the Israelites, from the land of Egypt with great acts of judgment. 7:5 Then 11 the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord, when I extend my hand 12 over Egypt and bring the Israelites out from among them.
7:6 And Moses and Aaron did so; they did just as the Lord commanded them. 7:7 Now Moses was eighty years old and Aaron was eighty-three years old when they spoke to Pharaoh.
7:8 The Lord said 13 to Moses and Aaron, 14 7:9 “When Pharaoh says to you, ‘Do 15 a miracle,’ and you say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down 16 before Pharaoh,’ it will become 17 a snake.” 7:10 When 18 Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh, they did so, just as the Lord had commanded them – Aaron threw 19 down his staff before Pharaoh and his servants and it became a snake. 20 7:11 Then Pharaoh also summoned wise men and sorcerers, 21 and the magicians 22 of Egypt by their secret arts 23 did the same thing. 7:12 Each man 24 threw down his staff, and the staffs became snakes. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs. 7:13 Yet Pharaoh’s heart became hard, 25 and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 7:14
The First Blow: Water to Blood 26
The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is hard; 27 he refuses to release 28 the people. 7:15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning when 29 he goes out to the water. Position yourself 30 to meet him by the edge of the Nile, 31 and take 32 in your hand the staff 33 that was turned into a snake. 7:16 Tell him, ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to you to say, 34 “Release my people, that they may serve me 35 in the desert!” But until now 36 you have not listened. 37 7:17 Thus says the Lord: “By this you will know that I am the Lord: I am going to strike 38 the water of the Nile with the staff that is in my hand, and it will be turned into blood. 39 7:18 Fish 40 in the Nile will die, the Nile will stink, and the Egyptians will be unable 41 to drink water from the Nile.”’” 7:19 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your staff and stretch out your hand over Egypt’s waters – over their rivers, over their canals, 42 over their ponds, and over all their reservoirs 43 – so that it becomes 44 blood.’ There will be blood everywhere in 45 the land of Egypt, even in wooden and stone containers.” 7:20 Moses and Aaron did so, 46 just as the Lord had commanded. Moses raised 47 the staff 48 and struck the water that was in the Nile right before the eyes 49 of Pharaoh and his servants, 50 and all the water that was in the Nile was turned to blood. 51 7:21 When the fish 52 that were in the Nile died, the Nile began 53 to stink, so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood 54 everywhere in the land of Egypt! 7:22 But the magicians of Egypt did the same 55 by their secret arts, and so 56 Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 57 and he refused to listen to Moses and Aaron 58 – just as the Lord had predicted. 7:23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house. He did not pay any attention to this. 59 7:24 All the Egyptians dug around the Nile for water to drink, 60 because they could not drink the water of the Nile. 7:25
The Second Blow: Frogs 61
Seven full days passed 62 after the Lord struck 63 the Nile. 8:1 64 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord: “Release my people in order that they may serve me! 8:2 But if you refuse to release them, then I am going to plague 65 all your territory with frogs. 66 8:3 The Nile will swarm 67 with frogs, and they will come up and go into your house, in your bedroom, and on your bed, and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens and your kneading troughs. 68 8:4 Frogs 69 will come up against you, your people, and all your servants.”’” 70
8:5 The Lord spoke to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your hand with your staff 71 over the rivers, over the canals, and over the ponds, and bring the frogs up over the land of Egypt.’” 8:6 So Aaron extended his hand over the waters of Egypt, and frogs 72 came up and covered the land of Egypt.
8:7 The magicians did the same 73 with their secret arts and brought up frogs on the land of Egypt too. 74
8:8 Then Pharaoh summoned 75 Moses and Aaron and said, “Pray 76 to the Lord that he may take the frogs away 77 from me and my people, and I will release 78 the people that they may sacrifice 79 to the Lord.” 8:9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “You may have the honor over me 80 – when shall I pray for you, your servants, and your people, for the frogs to be removed 81 from you and your houses, so that 82 they will be left 83 only in the Nile?” 8:10 He said, “Tomorrow.” And Moses said, 84 “It will be 85 as you say, 86 so that you may know that there is no one like the Lord our God. 8:11 The frogs will depart from you, your houses, your servants, and your people; they will be left only in the Nile.”
8:12 Then Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried 87 to the Lord because of 88 the frogs that he had brought on 89 Pharaoh. 8:13 The Lord did as Moses asked 90 – the 91 frogs died out of the houses, the villages, and the fields. 8:14 The Egyptians 92 piled them in countless heaps, 93 and the land stank. 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was relief, 94 he hardened 95 his heart and did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 96 8:16
The Third Blow: Gnats 97
The Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your staff and strike the dust of the ground, and it will become 98 gnats 99 throughout all the land of Egypt.’” 8:17 They did so; Aaron extended his hand with his staff, he struck the dust of the ground, and it became gnats on people 100 and on animals. All the dust of the ground became gnats throughout all the land of Egypt. 8:18 When 101 the magicians attempted 102 to bring forth gnats by their secret arts, they could not. So there were gnats on people and on animals. 8:19 The magicians said 103 to Pharaoh, “It is the finger 104 of God!” But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 105 and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 8:20
The Fourth Blow: Flies 106
The Lord 107 said to Moses, “Get up early in the morning and position yourself before Pharaoh as he goes out to the water, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, “Release my people that they may serve me! 8:21 If you do not release 108 my people, then I am going to send 109 swarms of flies 110 on you and on your servants and on your people and in your houses. The houses of the Egyptians will be full of flies, and even the ground they stand on. 111 8:22 But on that day I will mark off 112 the land of Goshen, where my people are staying, 113 so that no swarms of flies will be there, that you may know that I am the Lord in the midst of this land. 114 8:23 I will put a division 115 between my people and your people. This sign will take place 116 tomorrow.”’” 8:24 The Lord did so; a 117 thick 118 swarm of flies came into 119 Pharaoh’s house and into the houses 120 of his servants, and throughout the whole land of Egypt the land was ruined 121 because of the swarms of flies.
8:25 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God within the land.” 122 8:26 But Moses said, “That would not be the right thing to do, 123 for the sacrifices we make 124 to the Lord our God would be an abomination 125 to the Egyptians. 126 If we make sacrifices that are an abomination to the Egyptians right before their eyes, 127 will they not stone us? 128 8:27 We must go 129 on a three-day journey 130 into the desert and sacrifice 131 to the Lord our God, just as he is telling us.” 132
8:28 Pharaoh said, “I will release you 133 so that you may sacrifice 134 to the Lord your God in the desert. Only you must not go very far. 135 Do 136 pray for me.”
8:29 Moses said, “I am going to go out 137 from you and pray to the Lord, and the swarms of flies will go away from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people tomorrow. Only do not let Pharaoh deal falsely again 138 by not releasing 139 the people to sacrifice to the Lord.” 8:30 So Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 8:31 and the Lord did as Moses asked 140 – he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people. Not one remained! 8:32 But Pharaoh hardened 141 his heart this time also and did not release the people. 9:1
The Fifth Blow: Disease 142
Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, “Release my people that they may serve me! 9:2 For if you refuse to release them 143 and continue holding them, 144 9:3 then the hand of the Lord will surely bring 145 a very terrible plague 146 on your livestock in the field, on the horses, the donkeys, the camels, 147 the herds, and the flocks. 9:4 But the Lord will distinguish 148 between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, and nothing 149 will die of all that the Israelites have.”’” 150
9:5 The Lord set 151 an appointed time, saying, “Tomorrow the Lord will do this 152 in the land.” 9:6 And the Lord did this 153 on the next day; 154 all 155 the livestock of the Egyptians 156 died, but of the Israelites’ livestock not one died. 9:7 Pharaoh sent representatives to investigate, 157 and indeed, not even one of the livestock of Israel had died. But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 158 and he did not release the people. 9:8
The Sixth Blow: Boils 159
Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot 160 from a furnace, and have Moses throw it 161 into the air while Pharaoh is watching. 162 9:9 It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt and will cause boils to break out and fester 163 on both people and animals in all the land of Egypt.” 9:10 So they took soot from a furnace and stood before Pharaoh, Moses threw it into the air, and it caused festering boils to break out on both people and animals.
9:11 The magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for boils were on the magicians and on all the Egyptians. 9:12 But the Lord hardened 164 Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted to Moses. 9:13
The Seventh Blow: Hail 165
The Lord said 166 to Moses, “Get up early in the morning, stand 167 before Pharaoh, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: “Release my people so that they may serve me! 9:14 For this time I will send all my plagues 168 on your very self 169 and on your servants and your people, so that you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth. 9:15 For by now I could have stretched out 170 my hand and struck you and your people with plague, and you would have been destroyed 171 from the earth. 9:16 But 172 for this purpose I have caused you to stand: 173 to show you 174 my strength, and so that my name may be declared 175 in all the earth. 9:17 You are still exalting 176 yourself against my people by 177 not releasing them. 9:18 I am going to cause very severe hail to rain down 178 about this time tomorrow, such hail as has never occurred 179 in Egypt from the day it was founded 180 until now. 9:19 So now, send instructions 181 to gather 182 your livestock and all your possessions in the fields to a safe place. Every person 183 or animal caught 184 in the field and not brought into the house – the hail will come down on them, and they will die!”’”
9:20 Those 185 of Pharaoh’s servants who feared the word of the Lord hurried to bring their 186 servants and livestock into the houses, 9:21 but those 187 who did not take 188 the word of the Lord seriously left their servants and their cattle 189 in the field.
9:22 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sky 190 that there may be 191 hail in all the land of Egypt, on people and on animals, 192 and on everything that grows 193 in the field in the land of Egypt.” 9:23 When Moses extended 194 his staff toward the sky, the Lord 195 sent thunder 196 and hail, and fire fell to the earth; 197 so the Lord caused hail to rain down on the land of Egypt. 9:24 Hail fell 198 and fire mingled 199 with the hail; the hail was so severe 200 that there had not been any like it 201 in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation. 9:25 The hail struck everything in the open fields, both 202 people and animals, throughout all the land of Egypt. The hail struck everything that grows 203 in the field, and it broke all the trees of the field to pieces. 9:26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived, was there no hail.
9:27 So Pharaoh sent and summoned Moses and Aaron and said to them, “I have sinned this time! 204 The Lord is righteous, and I and my people are guilty. 205 9:28 Pray to the Lord, for the mighty 206 thunderings and hail are too much! 207 I will release you and you will stay no longer.” 208
9:29 Moses said to him, “When I leave the city 209 I will spread my hands to the Lord, the thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth belongs to the Lord. 210 9:30 But as for you 211 and your servants, I know that you do not yet fear 212 the Lord God.”
9:31 (Now the 213 flax and the barley were struck 214 by the hail, 215 for the barley had ripened 216 and the flax 217 was in bud. 9:32 But the wheat and the spelt 218 were not struck, for they are later crops.) 219
9:33 So Moses left Pharaoh, went out of the city, and spread out his hands to the Lord, and the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain stopped pouring on the earth. 9:34 When Pharaoh saw 220 that the rain and hail and thunder ceased, he sinned again: 221 both he and his servants hardened 222 their hearts. 9:35 So Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 223 and he did not release the Israelites, as the Lord had predicted through Moses. 10:1
The Eighth Blow: Locusts 224
The Lord said 225 to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, in order to display 226 these signs of mine before him, 227 10:2 and in order that in the hearing of your son and your grandson you may tell 228 how I made fools 229 of the Egyptians 230 and about 231 my signs that I displayed 232 among them, so that you may know 233 that I am the Lord.”
10:3 So Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh and told him, “Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: ‘How long do you refuse 234 to humble yourself before me? 235 Release my people so that they may serve me! 10:4 But if you refuse to release my people, I am going to bring 236 locusts 237 into your territory 238 tomorrow. 10:5 They will cover 239 the surface 240 of the earth, so that you 241 will be unable to see the ground. They will eat the remainder of what escaped 242 – what is left over 243 for you – from the hail, and they will eat every tree that grows for you from the field. 10:6 They will fill your houses, the houses of your servants, and all the houses of Egypt, such as 244 neither 245 your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen since they have been 246 in the land until this day!’” Then Moses 247 turned and went out from Pharaoh.
10:7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long 248 will this man be a menace 249 to us? Release the people so that they may serve the Lord their God. Do you not know 250 that Egypt is destroyed?”
10:8 So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve the Lord your God. Exactly who is going with you?” 251 10:9 Moses said, “We will go with our young and our old, with our sons and our daughters, and with our sheep and our cattle we will go, because we are to hold 252 a pilgrim feast for the Lord.”
10:10 He said to them, “The Lord will need to be with you 253 if I release you and your dependents! 254 Watch out! 255 Trouble is right in front of you! 256 10:11 No! 257 Go, you men 258 only, and serve the Lord, for that 259 is what you want.” 260 Then Moses and Aaron 261 were driven 262 out of Pharaoh’s presence.
10:12 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand over the land of Egypt for 263 the locusts, that they may come up over the land of Egypt and eat everything that grows 264 in the ground, everything that the hail has left.” 10:13 So Moses extended his staff over the land of Egypt, and then the Lord 265 brought 266 an east wind on the land all that day and all night. 267 The morning came, 268 and the east wind had brought up 269 the locusts! 10:14 The locusts went up over all the land of Egypt and settled down in all the territory 270 of Egypt. It was very severe; 271 there had been no locusts like them before, nor will there be such ever again. 272 10:15 They covered 273 the surface 274 of all the ground, so that the ground became dark with them, 275 and they ate all the vegetation of the ground and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Nothing green remained on the trees or on anything that grew in the fields throughout the whole land of Egypt. 10:16 276
Then Pharaoh quickly 277 summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “I have sinned 278 against the Lord your God and against you! 10:17 So now, forgive my sin this time only, and pray to the Lord your God that he would only 279 take this death 280 away from me.” 10:18 Moses 281 went out 282 from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 10:19 and the Lord turned a very strong west wind, 283 and it picked up the locusts and blew them into the Red Sea. 284 Not one locust remained in all the territory of Egypt. 10:20 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites. 10:21
The Ninth Blow: Darkness 285
The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward heaven 286 so that there may be 287 darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness so thick it can be felt.” 288
10:22 So Moses extended his hand toward heaven, and there was absolute darkness 289 throughout the land of Egypt for three days. 290 10:23 No one 291 could see 292 another person, and no one could rise from his place for three days. But the Israelites had light in the places where they lived.
10:24 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and said, “Go, serve the Lord – only your flocks and herds will be detained. Even your families 293 may go with you.”
10:25 But Moses said, “Will you also 294 provide us 295 with sacrifices and burnt offerings that we may present them 296 to the Lord our God? 10:26 Our livestock must 297 also go with us! Not a hoof is to be left behind! For we must take 298 these animals 299 to serve the Lord our God. Until we arrive there, we do not know what we must use to serve the Lord.” 300
10:27 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he was not willing to release them. 10:28 Pharaoh said to him, “Go from me! 301 Watch out for yourself! Do not appear before me again, 302 for when 303 you see my face you will die!” 10:29 Moses said, “As you wish! 304 I will not see your face again.” 305 11:1
The Tenth Blow: Death 306
The Lord said to Moses, “I will bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt; after that he will release you from this place. When he releases you, 307 he will drive you out completely 308 from this place. 11:2 Instruct 309 the people that each man and each woman is to request 310 from his or her neighbor 311 items of silver and gold.” 312
11:3 (Now the Lord granted the people favor with 313 the Egyptians. Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, respected by Pharaoh’s servants and by the Egyptian people.) 314
11:4 Moses said, “Thus says the Lord: ‘About midnight 315 I will go throughout Egypt, 316 11:5 and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh 317 who sits on his throne, to the firstborn son of the slave girl who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 11:6 There will be a great cry throughout the whole land of Egypt, such as there has never been, 318 nor ever will be again. 319 11:7 But against any of the Israelites not even a dog will bark 320 against either people or animals, 321 so that you may know that the Lord distinguishes 322 between Egypt and Israel.’ 11:8 All these your servants will come down to me and bow down 323 to me, saying, ‘Go, you and all the people who follow 324 you,’ and after that I will go out.” Then Moses 325 went out from Pharaoh in great anger.
11:9 The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not listen to you, so that my wonders 326 may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”
11:10 So Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, but the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites from his land. 12:1
The Institution of the Passover 327
The Lord said 328 to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 329 12:2 “This month is to be your beginning of months; it will be your first month of the year. 330 12:3 Tell the whole community of Israel, ‘In the tenth day of this month they each 331 must take a lamb 332 for themselves according to their families 333 – a lamb for each household. 334 12:4 If any household is too small 335 for a lamb, 336 the man 337 and his next-door neighbor 338 are to take 339 a lamb according to the number of people – you will make your count for the lamb according to how much each one can eat. 340 12:5 Your lamb must be 341 perfect, 342 a male, one year old; 343 you may take 344 it from the sheep or from the goats. 12:6 You must care for it 345 until the fourteenth day of this month, and then the whole community 346 of Israel will kill it around sundown. 347 12:7 They will take some of the blood and put it on the two side posts and top of the doorframe of the houses where they will eat it. 12:8 They will eat the meat the same night; 348 they will eat it roasted over the fire with bread made without yeast 349 and with bitter herbs. 12:9 Do not eat it raw 350 or boiled in water, but roast it over the fire with its head, its legs, and its entrails. 12:10 You must leave nothing until morning, but you must burn with fire whatever remains of it until morning. 12:11 This is how you are to eat it – dressed to travel, 351 your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. You are to eat it in haste. It is the Lord’s Passover. 352
12:12 I will pass through 353 the land of Egypt in the same 354 night, and I will attack 355 all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both of humans and of animals, 356 and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment. 357 I am the Lord. 12:13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, so that when I see 358 the blood I will pass over you, 359 and this plague 360 will not fall on you to destroy you 361 when I attack 362 the land of Egypt. 363
12:14 This day will become 364 a memorial 365 for you, and you will celebrate it as a festival 366 to the Lord – you will celebrate it perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 367 12:15 For seven days 368 you must eat 369 bread made without yeast. 370 Surely 371 on the first day you must put away yeast from your houses because anyone who eats bread made with yeast 372 from the first day to the seventh day will be cut off 373 from Israel.
12:16 On the first day there will be a holy convocation, 374 and on the seventh day there will be a holy convocation for you. You must do no work of any kind 375 on them, only what every person will eat – that alone may be prepared for you. 12:17 So you will keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because on this very 376 day I brought your regiments 377 out from the land of Egypt, and so you must keep this day perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 378 12:18 In the first month, 379 from the fourteenth day of the month, in the evening, you will eat bread made without yeast until the twenty-first day of the month in the evening. 12:19 For seven days 380 yeast must not be found in your houses, for whoever eats what is made with yeast – that person 381 will be cut off from the community of Israel, whether a foreigner 382 or one born in the land. 12:20 You will not eat anything made with yeast; in all the places where you live you must eat bread made without yeast.’”
12:21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel, and told them, “Go and select 383 for yourselves a lamb or young goat 384 for your families, and kill the Passover animals. 385 12:22 Take a branch of hyssop, 386 dip it in the blood that is in the basin, 387 and apply to the top of the doorframe and the two side posts some of the blood that is in the basin. Not one of you is to go out 388 the door of his house until morning. 12:23 For the Lord will pass through to strike Egypt, and when he sees 389 the blood on the top of the doorframe and the two side posts, then the Lord will pass over the door, and he will not permit the destroyer 390 to enter your houses to strike you. 391 12:24 You must observe this event as an ordinance for you and for your children forever. 12:25 When you enter the land that the Lord will give to you, just as he said, you must observe 392 this ceremony. 12:26 When your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ 393 – 12:27 then you will say, ‘It is the sacrifice 394 of the Lord’s Passover, when he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when he struck 395 Egypt and delivered our households.’” The people bowed down low 396 to the ground, 12:28 and the Israelites went away and did exactly as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron. 397 12:29
The Deliverance from Egypt 398
It happened 399 at midnight – the Lord attacked all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the prison, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 12:30 Pharaoh got up 400 in the night, 401 along with all his servants and all Egypt, and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was no house 402 in which there was not someone dead. 12:31 Pharaoh 403 summoned Moses and Aaron in the night and said, “Get up, get out 404 from among my people, both you and the Israelites! Go, serve the Lord as you have requested! 405 12:32 Also, take your flocks and your herds, just as you have requested, and leave. But bless me also.” 406
12:33 The Egyptians were urging 407 the people on, in order to send them out of the land quickly, 408 for they were saying, “We are all dead!” 12:34 So the people took their dough before the yeast was added, 409 with their kneading troughs bound up in their clothing on their shoulders. 12:35 Now the Israelites had done 410 as Moses told them – they had requested from the Egyptians 411 silver and gold items and clothing. 12:36 The Lord 412 gave the people favor 413 in the sight of the Egyptians, and they gave them whatever they wanted, 414 and so they plundered Egypt. 415
12:37 The Israelites journeyed 416 from Rameses 417 to Sukkoth. There were about 600,000 men 418 on foot, plus their dependants. 419 12:38 A mixed multitude 420 also went up with them, and flocks and herds – a very large number of cattle. 421 12:39 They baked cakes of bread without yeast using the dough they had brought from Egypt, for it was made without yeast – because they were thrust out 422 of Egypt and were not able to delay, they 423 could not prepare 424 food for themselves either.
12:40 Now the length of time the Israelites lived in Egypt was 430 years. 425 12:41 At the end of the 430 years, on the very day, all the regiments 426 of the Lord went out of the land of Egypt. 12:42 It was a night of vigil for the Lord to bring them out from the land of Egypt, 427 and so 428 on this night all Israel is to keep the vigil 429 to the Lord for generations to come. 12:43
Participation in the Passover 430
The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover. No foreigner may 431 share in eating it. 432 12:44 But everyone’s servant who is bought for money, after you have circumcised him, may eat it. 12:45 A foreigner and a hired worker must not eat it. 12:46 It must be eaten in one house; you must not bring any of the meat outside the house, and you must not break a bone of it. 12:47 The whole community of Israel must observe it.
12:48 “When a foreigner lives 433 with you and wants to observe the Passover to the Lord, all his males must be circumcised, 434 and then he may approach and observe it, and he will be like one who is born in the land 435 – but no uncircumcised person may eat of it. 12:49 The same law will apply 436 to the person who is native-born and to the foreigner who lives among you.”
12:50 So all the Israelites did exactly as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron. 437 12:51 And on this very day the Lord brought the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments.