6:1 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Now you will see what I will do to Pharaoh, 1 for compelled by my strong hand 2 he will release them, and by my strong hand he will drive them out of his land.” 3
6:2 God spoke 4 to Moses and said to him, “I am the Lord. 5 6:3 I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as 6 God Almighty, 7 but by 8 my name ‘the Lord’ 9 I was not known to them. 10 6:4 I also established my covenant with them 11 to give them the land of Canaan, where they were living as resident foreigners. 12 6:5 I 13 have also heard 14 the groaning of the Israelites, whom the Egyptians are enslaving, 15 and I have remembered my covenant. 16 6:6 Therefore, tell the Israelites, ‘I am the Lord. I will bring you out 17 from your enslavement to 18 the Egyptians, I will rescue you from the hard labor they impose, 19 and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments. 6:7 I will take you to myself for a people, and I will be your God. 20 Then you will know that I am the Lord your God, who brought you out from your enslavement to 21 the Egyptians. 6:8 I will bring you to the land I swore to give 22 to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob – and I will give it to you 23 as a possession. I am the Lord!’” 6:9 24
Moses told this 25 to the Israelites, but they did not listen to him 26 because of their discouragement 27 and hard labor. 6:10 Then the Lord said to Moses, 6:11 “Go, tell Pharaoh king of Egypt that he must release 28 the Israelites from his land.” 6:12 But Moses replied to 29 the Lord, “If the Israelites did not listen to me, then 30 how will Pharaoh listen to me, since 31 I speak with difficulty?” 32
6:13 The Lord spoke 33 to Moses and Aaron and gave them a charge 34 for the Israelites and Pharaoh king of Egypt to bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt. 6:14
The Ancestry of the Deliverer 35
These are the heads of their fathers’ households: 36
The sons 37 of Reuben, the firstborn son of Israel, were Hanoch and Pallu, Hezron and Carmi. These were the clans 38 of Reuben.
6:15 The sons of Simeon were Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jakin, Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman. These were the clans of Simeon.
6:16 Now these are the names of the sons of Levi, according to their records: 39 Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. (The length of Levi’s life was 137 years.)
6:17 The sons of Gershon, by their families, were Libni and Shimei.
6:18 The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. (The length of Kohath’s life was 133 years.)
6:19 The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi. These were the clans of Levi, according to their records.
6:20 Amram married 40 his father’s sister Jochebed, and she bore him Aaron and Moses. (The length of Amram’s life was 137 years.)
6:21 The sons of Izhar were Korah, Nepheg, and Zikri.
6:22 The sons of Uzziel were Mishael, Elzaphan, and Sithri.
6:23 Aaron married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab and sister of Nahshon, and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.
6:24 The sons of Korah were Assir, Elkanah, and Abiasaph. These were the Korahite clans.
6:25 Now Eleazar son of Aaron married one of the daughters of Putiel and she bore him Phinehas.
These are the heads of the fathers’ households 41 of Levi according to their clans.
6:26 It was the same Aaron and Moses to whom the Lord said, “Bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments.” 42 6:27 They were the men who were speaking to Pharaoh king of Egypt, in order to bring the Israelites out of Egypt. It was the same Moses and Aaron. 6:28
The Authentication of the Word 43
When 44 the Lord spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt, 6:29 he said to him, 45 “I am the Lord. Tell 46 Pharaoh king of Egypt all that 47 I am telling 48 you.” 6:30 But Moses said before the Lord, “Since I speak with difficulty, 49 why should Pharaoh listen to me?”
7:1 So the Lord said to Moses, “See, I have made you like God 50 to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet. 51 7:2 You are to speak 52 everything I command you, 53 and your brother Aaron is to tell Pharaoh that he must release 54 the Israelites from his land. 7:3 But I will harden 55 Pharaoh’s heart, and although I will multiply 56 my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt, 7:4 Pharaoh will not listen to you. 57 I will reach into 58 Egypt and bring out my regiments, 59 my people the Israelites, from the land of Egypt with great acts of judgment. 7:5 Then 60 the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord, when I extend my hand 61 over Egypt and bring the Israelites out from among them.
7:6 And Moses and Aaron did so; they did just as the Lord commanded them. 7:7 Now Moses was eighty years old and Aaron was eighty-three years old when they spoke to Pharaoh.
7:8 The Lord said 62 to Moses and Aaron, 63 7:9 “When Pharaoh says to you, ‘Do 64 a miracle,’ and you say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down 65 before Pharaoh,’ it will become 66 a snake.” 7:10 When 67 Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh, they did so, just as the Lord had commanded them – Aaron threw 68 down his staff before Pharaoh and his servants and it became a snake. 69 7:11 Then Pharaoh also summoned wise men and sorcerers, 70 and the magicians 71 of Egypt by their secret arts 72 did the same thing. 7:12 Each man 73 threw down his staff, and the staffs became snakes. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs. 7:13 Yet Pharaoh’s heart became hard, 74 and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 7:14
The First Blow: Water to Blood 75
The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is hard; 76 he refuses to release 77 the people. 7:15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning when 78 he goes out to the water. Position yourself 79 to meet him by the edge of the Nile, 80 and take 81 in your hand the staff 82 that was turned into a snake. 7:16 Tell him, ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to you to say, 83 “Release my people, that they may serve me 84 in the desert!” But until now 85 you have not listened. 86 7:17 Thus says the Lord: “By this you will know that I am the Lord: I am going to strike 87 the water of the Nile with the staff that is in my hand, and it will be turned into blood. 88 7:18 Fish 89 in the Nile will die, the Nile will stink, and the Egyptians will be unable 90 to drink water from the Nile.”’” 7:19 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your staff and stretch out your hand over Egypt’s waters – over their rivers, over their canals, 91 over their ponds, and over all their reservoirs 92 – so that it becomes 93 blood.’ There will be blood everywhere in 94 the land of Egypt, even in wooden and stone containers.” 7:20 Moses and Aaron did so, 95 just as the Lord had commanded. Moses raised 96 the staff 97 and struck the water that was in the Nile right before the eyes 98 of Pharaoh and his servants, 99 and all the water that was in the Nile was turned to blood. 100 7:21 When the fish 101 that were in the Nile died, the Nile began 102 to stink, so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood 103 everywhere in the land of Egypt! 7:22 But the magicians of Egypt did the same 104 by their secret arts, and so 105 Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 106 and he refused to listen to Moses and Aaron 107 – just as the Lord had predicted. 7:23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house. He did not pay any attention to this. 108 7:24 All the Egyptians dug around the Nile for water to drink, 109 because they could not drink the water of the Nile. 7:25
The Second Blow: Frogs 110
Seven full days passed 111 after the Lord struck 112 the Nile. 8:1 113 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord: “Release my people in order that they may serve me! 8:2 But if you refuse to release them, then I am going to plague 114 all your territory with frogs. 115 8:3 The Nile will swarm 116 with frogs, and they will come up and go into your house, in your bedroom, and on your bed, and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens and your kneading troughs. 117 8:4 Frogs 118 will come up against you, your people, and all your servants.”’” 119
8:5 The Lord spoke to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your hand with your staff 120 over the rivers, over the canals, and over the ponds, and bring the frogs up over the land of Egypt.’” 8:6 So Aaron extended his hand over the waters of Egypt, and frogs 121 came up and covered the land of Egypt.
8:7 The magicians did the same 122 with their secret arts and brought up frogs on the land of Egypt too. 123
8:8 Then Pharaoh summoned 124 Moses and Aaron and said, “Pray 125 to the Lord that he may take the frogs away 126 from me and my people, and I will release 127 the people that they may sacrifice 128 to the Lord.” 8:9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “You may have the honor over me 129 – when shall I pray for you, your servants, and your people, for the frogs to be removed 130 from you and your houses, so that 131 they will be left 132 only in the Nile?” 8:10 He said, “Tomorrow.” And Moses said, 133 “It will be 134 as you say, 135 so that you may know that there is no one like the Lord our God. 8:11 The frogs will depart from you, your houses, your servants, and your people; they will be left only in the Nile.”
8:12 Then Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried 136 to the Lord because of 137 the frogs that he had brought on 138 Pharaoh. 8:13 The Lord did as Moses asked 139 – the 140 frogs died out of the houses, the villages, and the fields. 8:14 The Egyptians 141 piled them in countless heaps, 142 and the land stank. 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was relief, 143 he hardened 144 his heart and did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 145 8:16
The Third Blow: Gnats 146
The Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your staff and strike the dust of the ground, and it will become 147 gnats 148 throughout all the land of Egypt.’” 8:17 They did so; Aaron extended his hand with his staff, he struck the dust of the ground, and it became gnats on people 149 and on animals. All the dust of the ground became gnats throughout all the land of Egypt. 8:18 When 150 the magicians attempted 151 to bring forth gnats by their secret arts, they could not. So there were gnats on people and on animals. 8:19 The magicians said 152 to Pharaoh, “It is the finger 153 of God!” But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 154 and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 8:20
The Fourth Blow: Flies 155
The Lord 156 said to Moses, “Get up early in the morning and position yourself before Pharaoh as he goes out to the water, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, “Release my people that they may serve me! 8:21 If you do not release 157 my people, then I am going to send 158 swarms of flies 159 on you and on your servants and on your people and in your houses. The houses of the Egyptians will be full of flies, and even the ground they stand on. 160 8:22 But on that day I will mark off 161 the land of Goshen, where my people are staying, 162 so that no swarms of flies will be there, that you may know that I am the Lord in the midst of this land. 163 8:23 I will put a division 164 between my people and your people. This sign will take place 165 tomorrow.”’” 8:24 The Lord did so; a 166 thick 167 swarm of flies came into 168 Pharaoh’s house and into the houses 169 of his servants, and throughout the whole land of Egypt the land was ruined 170 because of the swarms of flies.
8:25 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God within the land.” 171 8:26 But Moses said, “That would not be the right thing to do, 172 for the sacrifices we make 173 to the Lord our God would be an abomination 174 to the Egyptians. 175 If we make sacrifices that are an abomination to the Egyptians right before their eyes, 176 will they not stone us? 177 8:27 We must go 178 on a three-day journey 179 into the desert and sacrifice 180 to the Lord our God, just as he is telling us.” 181
8:28 Pharaoh said, “I will release you 182 so that you may sacrifice 183 to the Lord your God in the desert. Only you must not go very far. 184 Do 185 pray for me.”
8:29 Moses said, “I am going to go out 186 from you and pray to the Lord, and the swarms of flies will go away from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people tomorrow. Only do not let Pharaoh deal falsely again 187 by not releasing 188 the people to sacrifice to the Lord.” 8:30 So Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 8:31 and the Lord did as Moses asked 189 – he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people. Not one remained! 8:32 But Pharaoh hardened 190 his heart this time also and did not release the people. 9:1
The Fifth Blow: Disease 191
Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, “Release my people that they may serve me! 9:2 For if you refuse to release them 192 and continue holding them, 193 9:3 then the hand of the Lord will surely bring 194 a very terrible plague 195 on your livestock in the field, on the horses, the donkeys, the camels, 196 the herds, and the flocks. 9:4 But the Lord will distinguish 197 between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, and nothing 198 will die of all that the Israelites have.”’” 199
9:5 The Lord set 200 an appointed time, saying, “Tomorrow the Lord will do this 201 in the land.” 9:6 And the Lord did this 202 on the next day; 203 all 204 the livestock of the Egyptians 205 died, but of the Israelites’ livestock not one died. 9:7 Pharaoh sent representatives to investigate, 206 and indeed, not even one of the livestock of Israel had died. But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 207 and he did not release the people. 9:8
The Sixth Blow: Boils 208
Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot 209 from a furnace, and have Moses throw it 210 into the air while Pharaoh is watching. 211 9:9 It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt and will cause boils to break out and fester 212 on both people and animals in all the land of Egypt.” 9:10 So they took soot from a furnace and stood before Pharaoh, Moses threw it into the air, and it caused festering boils to break out on both people and animals.
9:11 The magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for boils were on the magicians and on all the Egyptians. 9:12 But the Lord hardened 213 Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted to Moses. 9:13
The Seventh Blow: Hail 214
The Lord said 215 to Moses, “Get up early in the morning, stand 216 before Pharaoh, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: “Release my people so that they may serve me! 9:14 For this time I will send all my plagues 217 on your very self 218 and on your servants and your people, so that you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth. 9:15 For by now I could have stretched out 219 my hand and struck you and your people with plague, and you would have been destroyed 220 from the earth. 9:16 But 221 for this purpose I have caused you to stand: 222 to show you 223 my strength, and so that my name may be declared 224 in all the earth. 9:17 You are still exalting 225 yourself against my people by 226 not releasing them. 9:18 I am going to cause very severe hail to rain down 227 about this time tomorrow, such hail as has never occurred 228 in Egypt from the day it was founded 229 until now. 9:19 So now, send instructions 230 to gather 231 your livestock and all your possessions in the fields to a safe place. Every person 232 or animal caught 233 in the field and not brought into the house – the hail will come down on them, and they will die!”’”
9:20 Those 234 of Pharaoh’s servants who feared the word of the Lord hurried to bring their 235 servants and livestock into the houses, 9:21 but those 236 who did not take 237 the word of the Lord seriously left their servants and their cattle 238 in the field.
9:22 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sky 239 that there may be 240 hail in all the land of Egypt, on people and on animals, 241 and on everything that grows 242 in the field in the land of Egypt.” 9:23 When Moses extended 243 his staff toward the sky, the Lord 244 sent thunder 245 and hail, and fire fell to the earth; 246 so the Lord caused hail to rain down on the land of Egypt. 9:24 Hail fell 247 and fire mingled 248 with the hail; the hail was so severe 249 that there had not been any like it 250 in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation. 9:25 The hail struck everything in the open fields, both 251 people and animals, throughout all the land of Egypt. The hail struck everything that grows 252 in the field, and it broke all the trees of the field to pieces. 9:26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived, was there no hail.
9:27 So Pharaoh sent and summoned Moses and Aaron and said to them, “I have sinned this time! 253 The Lord is righteous, and I and my people are guilty. 254 9:28 Pray to the Lord, for the mighty 255 thunderings and hail are too much! 256 I will release you and you will stay no longer.” 257
9:29 Moses said to him, “When I leave the city 258 I will spread my hands to the Lord, the thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth belongs to the Lord. 259 9:30 But as for you 260 and your servants, I know that you do not yet fear 261 the Lord God.”
9:31 (Now the 262 flax and the barley were struck 263 by the hail, 264 for the barley had ripened 265 and the flax 266 was in bud. 9:32 But the wheat and the spelt 267 were not struck, for they are later crops.) 268
9:33 So Moses left Pharaoh, went out of the city, and spread out his hands to the Lord, and the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain stopped pouring on the earth. 9:34 When Pharaoh saw 269 that the rain and hail and thunder ceased, he sinned again: 270 both he and his servants hardened 271 their hearts. 9:35 So Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 272 and he did not release the Israelites, as the Lord had predicted through Moses. 10:1
The Eighth Blow: Locusts 273
The Lord said 274 to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, in order to display 275 these signs of mine before him, 276 10:2 and in order that in the hearing of your son and your grandson you may tell 277 how I made fools 278 of the Egyptians 279 and about 280 my signs that I displayed 281 among them, so that you may know 282 that I am the Lord.”
10:3 So Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh and told him, “Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: ‘How long do you refuse 283 to humble yourself before me? 284 Release my people so that they may serve me! 10:4 But if you refuse to release my people, I am going to bring 285 locusts 286 into your territory 287 tomorrow. 10:5 They will cover 288 the surface 289 of the earth, so that you 290 will be unable to see the ground. They will eat the remainder of what escaped 291 – what is left over 292 for you – from the hail, and they will eat every tree that grows for you from the field. 10:6 They will fill your houses, the houses of your servants, and all the houses of Egypt, such as 293 neither 294 your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen since they have been 295 in the land until this day!’” Then Moses 296 turned and went out from Pharaoh.
10:7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long 297 will this man be a menace 298 to us? Release the people so that they may serve the Lord their God. Do you not know 299 that Egypt is destroyed?”
10:8 So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve the Lord your God. Exactly who is going with you?” 300 10:9 Moses said, “We will go with our young and our old, with our sons and our daughters, and with our sheep and our cattle we will go, because we are to hold 301 a pilgrim feast for the Lord.”
10:10 He said to them, “The Lord will need to be with you 302 if I release you and your dependents! 303 Watch out! 304 Trouble is right in front of you! 305 10:11 No! 306 Go, you men 307 only, and serve the Lord, for that 308 is what you want.” 309 Then Moses and Aaron 310 were driven 311 out of Pharaoh’s presence.
10:12 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand over the land of Egypt for 312 the locusts, that they may come up over the land of Egypt and eat everything that grows 313 in the ground, everything that the hail has left.” 10:13 So Moses extended his staff over the land of Egypt, and then the Lord 314 brought 315 an east wind on the land all that day and all night. 316 The morning came, 317 and the east wind had brought up 318 the locusts! 10:14 The locusts went up over all the land of Egypt and settled down in all the territory 319 of Egypt. It was very severe; 320 there had been no locusts like them before, nor will there be such ever again. 321 10:15 They covered 322 the surface 323 of all the ground, so that the ground became dark with them, 324 and they ate all the vegetation of the ground and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Nothing green remained on the trees or on anything that grew in the fields throughout the whole land of Egypt. 10:16 325
Then Pharaoh quickly 326 summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “I have sinned 327 against the Lord your God and against you! 10:17 So now, forgive my sin this time only, and pray to the Lord your God that he would only 328 take this death 329 away from me.” 10:18 Moses 330 went out 331 from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 10:19 and the Lord turned a very strong west wind, 332 and it picked up the locusts and blew them into the Red Sea. 333 Not one locust remained in all the territory of Egypt. 10:20 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites. 10:21
The Ninth Blow: Darkness 334
The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward heaven 335 so that there may be 336 darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness so thick it can be felt.” 337
10:22 So Moses extended his hand toward heaven, and there was absolute darkness 338 throughout the land of Egypt for three days. 339 10:23 No one 340 could see 341 another person, and no one could rise from his place for three days. But the Israelites had light in the places where they lived.
10:24 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and said, “Go, serve the Lord – only your flocks and herds will be detained. Even your families 342 may go with you.”
10:25 But Moses said, “Will you also 343 provide us 344 with sacrifices and burnt offerings that we may present them 345 to the Lord our God? 10:26 Our livestock must 346 also go with us! Not a hoof is to be left behind! For we must take 347 these animals 348 to serve the Lord our God. Until we arrive there, we do not know what we must use to serve the Lord.” 349
10:27 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he was not willing to release them. 10:28 Pharaoh said to him, “Go from me! 350 Watch out for yourself! Do not appear before me again, 351 for when 352 you see my face you will die!” 10:29 Moses said, “As you wish! 353 I will not see your face again.” 354 11:1
The Tenth Blow: Death 355
The Lord said to Moses, “I will bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt; after that he will release you from this place. When he releases you, 356 he will drive you out completely 357 from this place. 11:2 Instruct 358 the people that each man and each woman is to request 359 from his or her neighbor 360 items of silver and gold.” 361
11:3 (Now the Lord granted the people favor with 362 the Egyptians. Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, respected by Pharaoh’s servants and by the Egyptian people.) 363
11:4 Moses said, “Thus says the Lord: ‘About midnight 364 I will go throughout Egypt, 365 11:5 and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh 366 who sits on his throne, to the firstborn son of the slave girl who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 11:6 There will be a great cry throughout the whole land of Egypt, such as there has never been, 367 nor ever will be again. 368 11:7 But against any of the Israelites not even a dog will bark 369 against either people or animals, 370 so that you may know that the Lord distinguishes 371 between Egypt and Israel.’ 11:8 All these your servants will come down to me and bow down 372 to me, saying, ‘Go, you and all the people who follow 373 you,’ and after that I will go out.” Then Moses 374 went out from Pharaoh in great anger.
11:9 The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not listen to you, so that my wonders 375 may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”
11:10 So Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, but the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites from his land. 12:1
The Institution of the Passover 376
The Lord said 377 to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 378 12:2 “This month is to be your beginning of months; it will be your first month of the year. 379 12:3 Tell the whole community of Israel, ‘In the tenth day of this month they each 380 must take a lamb 381 for themselves according to their families 382 – a lamb for each household. 383 12:4 If any household is too small 384 for a lamb, 385 the man 386 and his next-door neighbor 387 are to take 388 a lamb according to the number of people – you will make your count for the lamb according to how much each one can eat. 389 12:5 Your lamb must be 390 perfect, 391 a male, one year old; 392 you may take 393 it from the sheep or from the goats. 12:6 You must care for it 394 until the fourteenth day of this month, and then the whole community 395 of Israel will kill it around sundown. 396 12:7 They will take some of the blood and put it on the two side posts and top of the doorframe of the houses where they will eat it. 12:8 They will eat the meat the same night; 397 they will eat it roasted over the fire with bread made without yeast 398 and with bitter herbs. 12:9 Do not eat it raw 399 or boiled in water, but roast it over the fire with its head, its legs, and its entrails. 12:10 You must leave nothing until morning, but you must burn with fire whatever remains of it until morning. 12:11 This is how you are to eat it – dressed to travel, 400 your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. You are to eat it in haste. It is the Lord’s Passover. 401
12:12 I will pass through 402 the land of Egypt in the same 403 night, and I will attack 404 all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both of humans and of animals, 405 and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment. 406 I am the Lord. 12:13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, so that when I see 407 the blood I will pass over you, 408 and this plague 409 will not fall on you to destroy you 410 when I attack 411 the land of Egypt. 412
12:14 This day will become 413 a memorial 414 for you, and you will celebrate it as a festival 415 to the Lord – you will celebrate it perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 416 12:15 For seven days 417 you must eat 418 bread made without yeast. 419 Surely 420 on the first day you must put away yeast from your houses because anyone who eats bread made with yeast 421 from the first day to the seventh day will be cut off 422 from Israel.
12:16 On the first day there will be a holy convocation, 423 and on the seventh day there will be a holy convocation for you. You must do no work of any kind 424 on them, only what every person will eat – that alone may be prepared for you. 12:17 So you will keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because on this very 425 day I brought your regiments 426 out from the land of Egypt, and so you must keep this day perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 427 12:18 In the first month, 428 from the fourteenth day of the month, in the evening, you will eat bread made without yeast until the twenty-first day of the month in the evening. 12:19 For seven days 429 yeast must not be found in your houses, for whoever eats what is made with yeast – that person 430 will be cut off from the community of Israel, whether a foreigner 431 or one born in the land. 12:20 You will not eat anything made with yeast; in all the places where you live you must eat bread made without yeast.’”
12:21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel, and told them, “Go and select 432 for yourselves a lamb or young goat 433 for your families, and kill the Passover animals. 434 12:22 Take a branch of hyssop, 435 dip it in the blood that is in the basin, 436 and apply to the top of the doorframe and the two side posts some of the blood that is in the basin. Not one of you is to go out 437 the door of his house until morning. 12:23 For the Lord will pass through to strike Egypt, and when he sees 438 the blood on the top of the doorframe and the two side posts, then the Lord will pass over the door, and he will not permit the destroyer 439 to enter your houses to strike you. 440 12:24 You must observe this event as an ordinance for you and for your children forever. 12:25 When you enter the land that the Lord will give to you, just as he said, you must observe 441 this ceremony. 12:26 When your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ 442 – 12:27 then you will say, ‘It is the sacrifice 443 of the Lord’s Passover, when he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when he struck 444 Egypt and delivered our households.’” The people bowed down low 445 to the ground, 12:28 and the Israelites went away and did exactly as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron. 446 12:29
The Deliverance from Egypt 447
It happened 448 at midnight – the Lord attacked all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the prison, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 12:30 Pharaoh got up 449 in the night, 450 along with all his servants and all Egypt, and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was no house 451 in which there was not someone dead. 12:31 Pharaoh 452 summoned Moses and Aaron in the night and said, “Get up, get out 453 from among my people, both you and the Israelites! Go, serve the Lord as you have requested! 454 12:32 Also, take your flocks and your herds, just as you have requested, and leave. But bless me also.” 455
12:33 The Egyptians were urging 456 the people on, in order to send them out of the land quickly, 457 for they were saying, “We are all dead!” 12:34 So the people took their dough before the yeast was added, 458 with their kneading troughs bound up in their clothing on their shoulders. 12:35 Now the Israelites had done 459 as Moses told them – they had requested from the Egyptians 460 silver and gold items and clothing. 12:36 The Lord 461 gave the people favor 462 in the sight of the Egyptians, and they gave them whatever they wanted, 463 and so they plundered Egypt. 464
12:37 The Israelites journeyed 465 from Rameses 466 to Sukkoth. There were about 600,000 men 467 on foot, plus their dependants. 468 12:38 A mixed multitude 469 also went up with them, and flocks and herds – a very large number of cattle. 470 12:39 They baked cakes of bread without yeast using the dough they had brought from Egypt, for it was made without yeast – because they were thrust out 471 of Egypt and were not able to delay, they 472 could not prepare 473 food for themselves either.
12:40 Now the length of time the Israelites lived in Egypt was 430 years. 474 12:41 At the end of the 430 years, on the very day, all the regiments 475 of the Lord went out of the land of Egypt. 12:42 It was a night of vigil for the Lord to bring them out from the land of Egypt, 476 and so 477 on this night all Israel is to keep the vigil 478 to the Lord for generations to come. 12:43
Participation in the Passover 479
The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover. No foreigner may 480 share in eating it. 481 12:44 But everyone’s servant who is bought for money, after you have circumcised him, may eat it. 12:45 A foreigner and a hired worker must not eat it. 12:46 It must be eaten in one house; you must not bring any of the meat outside the house, and you must not break a bone of it. 12:47 The whole community of Israel must observe it.
12:48 “When a foreigner lives 482 with you and wants to observe the Passover to the Lord, all his males must be circumcised, 483 and then he may approach and observe it, and he will be like one who is born in the land 484 – but no uncircumcised person may eat of it. 12:49 The same law will apply 485 to the person who is native-born and to the foreigner who lives among you.”
12:50 So all the Israelites did exactly as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron. 486 12:51 And on this very day the Lord brought the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments. 13:1
The Law of the Firstborn 487
The Lord spoke 488 to Moses: 13:2 “Set apart 489 to me every firstborn male – the first offspring of every womb 490 among the Israelites, whether human or animal; it is mine.” 491
13:3 Moses said to the people, “Remember 492 this day on which you came out from Egypt, from the place where you were enslaved, 493 for the Lord brought you out of there 494 with a mighty hand – and no bread made with yeast may be eaten. 495 13:4 On this day, 496 in the month of Abib, 497 you are going out. 498
13:5 When 499 the Lord brings you to the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which he swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, 500 then you will keep 501 this ceremony 502 in this month. 13:6 For seven days 503 you must eat 504 bread made without yeast, and on the seventh day there is to be 505 a festival to the Lord. 13:7 Bread made without yeast must be eaten 506 for seven days; 507 no bread made with yeast shall be seen 508 among you, and you must have no yeast among you within any of your borders.
13:8 You are to tell your son 509 on that day, 510 ‘It is 511 because of what 512 the Lord did for me when I came out of Egypt.’ 13:9 513 It 514 will be a sign 515 for you on your hand and a memorial 516 on your forehead, 517 so that the law of the Lord may be 518 in your mouth, 519 for 520 with a mighty hand the Lord brought you out of Egypt. 13:10 So you must keep 521 this ordinance at its appointed time from year to year. 522
13:11 When the Lord brings you 523 into the land of the Canaanites, 524 as he swore to you and to your fathers, and gives it 525 to you, 13:12 then you must give over 526 to the Lord the first offspring of every womb. 527 Every firstling 528 of a beast that you have 529 – the males will be the Lord’s. 530 13:13 Every firstling 531 of a donkey you must redeem 532 with a lamb, and if you do not redeem it, then you must break its neck. 533 Every firstborn of 534 your sons you must redeem. 13:14 535
In the future, 536 when your son asks you 537 ‘What is this?’ 538 you are to tell him, ‘With a mighty hand 539 the Lord brought us out from Egypt, from the land of slavery. 540 13:15 When Pharaoh stubbornly refused 541 to release us, the Lord killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of people to the firstborn of animals. 542 That is why I am sacrificing 543 to the Lord the first male offspring of every womb, but all my firstborn sons I redeem.’ 13:16 It will be for a sign on your hand and for frontlets 544 on your forehead, for with a mighty hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt.” 545 13:17
The Leading of God 546
When Pharaoh released 547 the people, God did not lead them 548 by the way to the land 549 of the Philistines, 550 although 551 that was nearby, for God said, 552 “Lest 553 the people change their minds 554 and return to Egypt when they experience 555 war.” 13:18 So God brought the people around by the way of the desert to the Red Sea, 556 and the Israelites went up from the land of Egypt prepared for battle. 557
13:19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for Joseph 558 had made the Israelites solemnly swear, 559 “God will surely attend 560 to you, and you will carry 561 my bones up from this place with you.”
13:20 They journeyed from Sukkoth and camped in Etham, on the edge of the desert. 13:21 Now the Lord was going before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them in the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, 562 so that they could 563 travel day or night. 564 13:22 He did not remove the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night from before the people. 565 14:1
The Victory at the Red Sea 566
The Lord spoke to Moses: 14:2 “Tell the Israelites that they must turn and camp 567 before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea; you are to camp by the sea before Baal Zephon opposite it. 568 14:3 Pharaoh will think 569 regarding the Israelites, ‘They are wandering around confused 570 in the land – the desert has closed in on them.’ 571 14:4 I will harden 572 Pharaoh’s heart, and he will chase after them. I will gain honor 573 because of Pharaoh and because of all his army, and the Egyptians will know 574 that I am the Lord.” So this is what they did. 575
14:5 When it was reported 576 to the king of Egypt that the people had fled, 577 the heart of Pharaoh and his servants was turned against the people, and the king and his servants said, 578 “What in the world have we done? 579 For we have released the people of Israel 580 from serving us!” 14:6 Then he prepared 581 his chariots and took his army 582 with him. 14:7 He took six hundred select 583 chariots, and all the rest of the chariots of Egypt, 584 and officers 585 on all of them.
14:8 But the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he chased after the Israelites. Now the Israelites were going out defiantly. 586 14:9 The Egyptians chased after them, and all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh and his horsemen and his army overtook them camping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-Zephon. 14:10 When 587 Pharaoh got closer, 588 the Israelites looked up, 589 and there were the Egyptians marching after them, 590 and they were terrified. 591 The Israelites cried out to the Lord, 592 14:11 and they said to Moses, “Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the desert? 593 What in the world 594 have you done to us by bringing 595 us out of Egypt? 14:12 Isn’t this what we told you 596 in Egypt, ‘Leave us alone so that we can serve the Egyptians, 597 because it is better for us to serve 598 the Egyptians than to die in the desert!’” 599
14:13 Moses said to the people, “Do not fear! 600 Stand firm 601 and see 602 the salvation 603 of the Lord that he will provide 604 for you today; for the Egyptians that you see today you will never, ever see again. 605 14:14 The Lord 606 will fight for you, and you can be still.” 607
14:15 The Lord said to Moses, “Why do you cry out to me? Tell the Israelites to move on. 608 14:16 And as for you, 609 lift up your staff and extend your hand toward the sea and divide it, so that 610 the Israelites may go through the middle of the sea on dry ground. 14:17 And as for me, I am going to harden 611 the hearts of the Egyptians so that 612 they will come after them, that I may be honored 613 because 614 of Pharaoh and his army and his chariots and his horsemen. 14:18 And the Egyptians will know 615 that I am the Lord when I have gained my honor 616 because of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.”
14:19 The angel of God, who was going before the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them, and the pillar 617 of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them. 14:20 It came between the Egyptian camp and the Israelite camp; it was a dark cloud 618 and it lit up the night so that one camp did not come near the other 619 the whole night. 620 14:21 Moses stretched out his hand toward the sea, and the Lord drove the sea apart 621 by a strong east wind all that night, and he made the sea into dry land, and the water was divided. 14:22 So the Israelites went through the middle of the sea on dry ground, the water forming a wall 622 for them on their right and on their left.
14:23 The Egyptians chased them and followed them into the middle of the sea – all the horses of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen. 14:24 In the morning watch 623 the Lord looked down 624 on the Egyptian army 625 through the pillar of fire and cloud, and he threw the Egyptian army 626 into a panic. 627 14:25 He jammed 628 the wheels of their chariots so that they had difficulty driving, 629 and the Egyptians said, “Let’s flee 630 from Israel, for the Lord fights 631 for them against Egypt!”
14:26 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sea, so that the waters may flow 632 back on the Egyptians, on their chariots, and on their horsemen!” 14:27 So Moses extended his hand toward the sea, and the sea returned to its normal state 633 when the sun began to rise. 634 Now the Egyptians were fleeing 635 before it, but the Lord overthrew 636 the Egyptians in the middle of the sea. 14:28 The water returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen and all the army of Pharaoh that was coming after the Israelites into the sea 637 – not so much as one of them survived! 638 14:29 But the Israelites walked on dry ground in the middle of the sea, the water forming a wall for them on their right and on their left. 14:30 So the Lord saved 639 Israel on that day from the power 640 of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead 641 on the shore of the sea. 14:31 When Israel saw 642 the great power 643 that the Lord had exercised 644 over the Egyptians, they 645 feared the Lord, and they believed in 646 the Lord and in his servant Moses. 647 15:1
The Song of Triumph 648
Then Moses and the Israelites sang 649 this song to the Lord. They said, 650
“I will sing 651 to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously, 652
the horse and its rider 653 he has thrown into the sea.
15:2 The Lord 654 is my strength and my song, 655
and he has become my salvation.
This is my God, and I will praise him, 656
my father’s God, and I will exalt him.
15:3 The Lord is a warrior, 657
the Lord is his name. 658
15:4 The chariots of Pharaoh 659 and his army he has thrown into the sea,
and his chosen 660 officers were drowned 661 in the Red Sea.
15:5 The depths have covered them, 662
they went down to the bottom 663 like a stone.
15:6 Your right hand, O Lord, was majestic 664 in power,
your right hand, O Lord, shattered the enemy.
15:7 In the abundance of your majesty 665 you have overthrown 666
those who rise up against you. 667
You sent forth 668 your wrath; 669
it consumed them 670 like stubble.
15:8 By the blast of your nostrils 671 the waters were piled up,
the flowing water stood upright like a heap, 672
and the deep waters were solidified in the heart of the sea.
15:9 The enemy said, ‘I will chase, 673 I will overtake,
I will divide the spoil;
my desire 674 will be satisfied on them.
I will draw 675 my sword, my hand will destroy them.’ 676
15:10 But 677 you blew with your breath, and 678 the sea covered them.
They sank 679 like lead in the mighty waters.
15:11 Who is like you, 680 O Lord, among the gods? 681
Who is like you? – majestic in holiness, fearful in praises, 682 working wonders?
15:12 You stretched out your right hand,
the earth swallowed them. 683
15:13 By your loyal love you will lead 684 the people whom 685 you have redeemed;
you will guide 686 them by your strength to your holy dwelling place.
15:14 The nations will hear 687 and tremble;
anguish 688 will seize 689 the inhabitants of Philistia.
15:15 Then the chiefs of Edom will be terrified, 690
trembling will seize 691 the leaders of Moab,
and the inhabitants of Canaan will shake.
15:16 Fear and dread 692 will fall 693 on them;
by the greatness 694 of your arm they will be as still as stone 695
until 696 your people pass by, O Lord,
until the people whom you have bought 697 pass by.
15:17 You will bring them in 698 and plant them in the mountain 699 of your inheritance,
in the place you made 700 for your residence, O Lord,
the sanctuary, O Lord, that your hands have established.
15:18 The Lord will reign forever and ever!
15:19 For the horses of Pharaoh came with his chariots and his footmen into the sea,
and the Lord brought back the waters of the sea on them,
but the Israelites walked on dry land in the middle of the sea.”
15:20 Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a hand-drum in her hand, and all the women went out after her with hand-drums and with dances. 701 15:21 Miriam sang in response 702 to them, “Sing to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously; the horse and its rider he has thrown into the sea.” 703 15:22
The Bitter Water 704
Then Moses led Israel to journey 705 away from the Red Sea. They went out to the Desert of Shur, walked for three days 706 into the desert, and found no water. 15:23 Then they came to Marah, 707 but they were not able to drink 708 the waters of Marah, because 709 they were bitter. 710 (That is 711 why its name was 712 Marah.)
15:24 So the people murmured 713 against Moses, saying, “What can 714 we drink?” 15:25 He cried out to the Lord, and the Lord showed him 715 a tree. 716 When Moses 717 threw it into the water, the water became safe to drink. There the Lord 718 made for them 719 a binding ordinance, 720 and there he tested 721 them. 15:26 He said, “If you will diligently obey 722 the Lord your God, and do what is right 723 in his sight, and pay attention 724 to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, then all 725 the diseases 726 that I brought on the Egyptians I will not bring on you, for I, the Lord, am your healer.” 727
15:27 Then they came to Elim, 728 where there were twelve wells of water and seventy palm trees, and they camped there by the water.