Opposition to the Plan of God 1
Afterward Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said, “Thus says the Lord, 2 the God of Israel, ‘Release 3 my people so that they may hold a pilgrim feast 4 to me in the desert.’” 5:2 But Pharaoh said, “Who is the Lord 5 that 6 I should obey him 7 by releasing 8 Israel? I do not know the Lord, 9 and I will not release Israel!” 5:3 And they said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Let us go a three-day journey 10 into the desert so that we may sacrifice 11 to the Lord our God, so that he does not strike us with plague or the sword.” 12 5:4 The king of Egypt said to them, “Moses and Aaron, why do you cause the people to refrain from their work? 13 Return to your labor!” 5:5 Pharaoh was thinking, 14 “The people of the land are now many, and you are giving them rest from their labor.”
5:6 That same day Pharaoh commanded 15 the slave masters and foremen 16 who were 17 over the people: 18 5:7 “You must no longer 19 give straw to the people for making bricks 20 as before. 21 Let them go 22 and collect straw for themselves. 5:8 But you must require 23 of them the same quota of bricks that they were making before. 24 Do not reduce it, for they are slackers. 25 That is why they are crying, ‘Let us go sacrifice to our God.’ 5:9 Make the work harder 26 for the men so they will keep at it 27 and pay no attention to lying words!” 28
5:10 So the slave masters of the people and their foremen went to the Israelites and said, 29 “Thus says Pharaoh: ‘I am not giving 30 you straw. 5:11 You 31 go get straw for yourselves wherever you can 32 find it, because there will be no reduction at all in your workload.’” 5:12 So the people spread out 33 through all the land of Egypt to collect stubble for straw. 5:13 The slave masters were pressuring 34 them, saying, “Complete 35 your work for each day, just like when there was straw!” 5:14 The Israelite foremen whom Pharaoh’s slave masters had set over them were beaten and were asked, 36 “Why did you not complete your requirement for brickmaking as in the past – both yesterday and today?” 37 5:15 38
The Israelite foremen went and cried out to Pharaoh, “Why are you treating 39 your servants this way? 5:16 No straw is given to your servants, but we are told, 40 ‘Make bricks!’ Your servants are even 41 being beaten, but the fault 42 is with your people.”
5:17 But Pharaoh replied, 43 “You are slackers! Slackers! 44 That is why you are saying, ‘Let us go sacrifice to the Lord.’ 5:18 So now, get back to work! 45 You will not be given straw, but you must still produce 46 your quota 47 of bricks!” 5:19 The Israelite foremen saw 48 that they 49 were in trouble when they were told, 50 “You must not reduce the daily quota of your bricks.”
5:20 When they went out from Pharaoh, they encountered Moses and Aaron standing there to meet them, 51 5:21 and they said to them, “May the Lord look on you and judge, 52 because you have made us stink 53 in the opinion of 54 Pharaoh and his servants, 55 so that you have given them an excuse to kill us!” 56 5:22
The Assurance of Deliverance 57
Moses returned 58 to the Lord, and said, “Lord, 59 why have you caused trouble for this people? 60 Why did you ever 61 send me? 5:23 From the time I went to speak to Pharaoh in your name, he has caused trouble 62 for this people, and you have certainly not rescued 63 them!” 64
6:1 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Now you will see what I will do to Pharaoh, 65 for compelled by my strong hand 66 he will release them, and by my strong hand he will drive them out of his land.” 67
6:2 God spoke 68 to Moses and said to him, “I am the Lord. 69 6:3 I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as 70 God Almighty, 71 but by 72 my name ‘the Lord’ 73 I was not known to them. 74 6:4 I also established my covenant with them 75 to give them the land of Canaan, where they were living as resident foreigners. 76 6:5 I 77 have also heard 78 the groaning of the Israelites, whom the Egyptians are enslaving, 79 and I have remembered my covenant. 80 6:6 Therefore, tell the Israelites, ‘I am the Lord. I will bring you out 81 from your enslavement to 82 the Egyptians, I will rescue you from the hard labor they impose, 83 and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments. 6:7 I will take you to myself for a people, and I will be your God. 84 Then you will know that I am the Lord your God, who brought you out from your enslavement to 85 the Egyptians. 6:8 I will bring you to the land I swore to give 86 to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob – and I will give it to you 87 as a possession. I am the Lord!’” 6:9 88
Moses told this 89 to the Israelites, but they did not listen to him 90 because of their discouragement 91 and hard labor. 6:10 Then the Lord said to Moses, 6:11 “Go, tell Pharaoh king of Egypt that he must release 92 the Israelites from his land.” 6:12 But Moses replied to 93 the Lord, “If the Israelites did not listen to me, then 94 how will Pharaoh listen to me, since 95 I speak with difficulty?” 96
6:13 The Lord spoke 97 to Moses and Aaron and gave them a charge 98 for the Israelites and Pharaoh king of Egypt to bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt. 6:14
The Ancestry of the Deliverer 99
These are the heads of their fathers’ households: 100
The sons 101 of Reuben, the firstborn son of Israel, were Hanoch and Pallu, Hezron and Carmi. These were the clans 102 of Reuben.
6:15 The sons of Simeon were Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jakin, Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman. These were the clans of Simeon.
6:16 Now these are the names of the sons of Levi, according to their records: 103 Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. (The length of Levi’s life was 137 years.)
6:17 The sons of Gershon, by their families, were Libni and Shimei.
6:18 The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. (The length of Kohath’s life was 133 years.)
6:19 The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi. These were the clans of Levi, according to their records.
6:20 Amram married 104 his father’s sister Jochebed, and she bore him Aaron and Moses. (The length of Amram’s life was 137 years.)
6:21 The sons of Izhar were Korah, Nepheg, and Zikri.
6:22 The sons of Uzziel were Mishael, Elzaphan, and Sithri.
6:23 Aaron married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab and sister of Nahshon, and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.
6:24 The sons of Korah were Assir, Elkanah, and Abiasaph. These were the Korahite clans.
6:25 Now Eleazar son of Aaron married one of the daughters of Putiel and she bore him Phinehas.
These are the heads of the fathers’ households 105 of Levi according to their clans.
6:26 It was the same Aaron and Moses to whom the Lord said, “Bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments.” 106 6:27 They were the men who were speaking to Pharaoh king of Egypt, in order to bring the Israelites out of Egypt. It was the same Moses and Aaron. 6:28
The Authentication of the Word 107
When 108 the Lord spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt, 6:29 he said to him, 109 “I am the Lord. Tell 110 Pharaoh king of Egypt all that 111 I am telling 112 you.” 6:30 But Moses said before the Lord, “Since I speak with difficulty, 113 why should Pharaoh listen to me?”
7:1 So the Lord said to Moses, “See, I have made you like God 114 to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet. 115 7:2 You are to speak 116 everything I command you, 117 and your brother Aaron is to tell Pharaoh that he must release 118 the Israelites from his land. 7:3 But I will harden 119 Pharaoh’s heart, and although I will multiply 120 my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt, 7:4 Pharaoh will not listen to you. 121 I will reach into 122 Egypt and bring out my regiments, 123 my people the Israelites, from the land of Egypt with great acts of judgment. 7:5 Then 124 the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord, when I extend my hand 125 over Egypt and bring the Israelites out from among them.
7:6 And Moses and Aaron did so; they did just as the Lord commanded them. 7:7 Now Moses was eighty years old and Aaron was eighty-three years old when they spoke to Pharaoh.
7:8 The Lord said 126 to Moses and Aaron, 127 7:9 “When Pharaoh says to you, ‘Do 128 a miracle,’ and you say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down 129 before Pharaoh,’ it will become 130 a snake.” 7:10 When 131 Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh, they did so, just as the Lord had commanded them – Aaron threw 132 down his staff before Pharaoh and his servants and it became a snake. 133 7:11 Then Pharaoh also summoned wise men and sorcerers, 134 and the magicians 135 of Egypt by their secret arts 136 did the same thing. 7:12 Each man 137 threw down his staff, and the staffs became snakes. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs. 7:13 Yet Pharaoh’s heart became hard, 138 and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 7:14
The First Blow: Water to Blood 139
The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is hard; 140 he refuses to release 141 the people. 7:15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning when 142 he goes out to the water. Position yourself 143 to meet him by the edge of the Nile, 144 and take 145 in your hand the staff 146 that was turned into a snake. 7:16 Tell him, ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to you to say, 147 “Release my people, that they may serve me 148 in the desert!” But until now 149 you have not listened. 150 7:17 Thus says the Lord: “By this you will know that I am the Lord: I am going to strike 151 the water of the Nile with the staff that is in my hand, and it will be turned into blood. 152 7:18 Fish 153 in the Nile will die, the Nile will stink, and the Egyptians will be unable 154 to drink water from the Nile.”’” 7:19 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your staff and stretch out your hand over Egypt’s waters – over their rivers, over their canals, 155 over their ponds, and over all their reservoirs 156 – so that it becomes 157 blood.’ There will be blood everywhere in 158 the land of Egypt, even in wooden and stone containers.” 7:20 Moses and Aaron did so, 159 just as the Lord had commanded. Moses raised 160 the staff 161 and struck the water that was in the Nile right before the eyes 162 of Pharaoh and his servants, 163 and all the water that was in the Nile was turned to blood. 164 7:21 When the fish 165 that were in the Nile died, the Nile began 166 to stink, so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood 167 everywhere in the land of Egypt! 7:22 But the magicians of Egypt did the same 168 by their secret arts, and so 169 Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 170 and he refused to listen to Moses and Aaron 171 – just as the Lord had predicted. 7:23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house. He did not pay any attention to this. 172 7:24 All the Egyptians dug around the Nile for water to drink, 173 because they could not drink the water of the Nile. 7:25
The Second Blow: Frogs 174
Seven full days passed 175 after the Lord struck 176 the Nile. 8:1 177 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord: “Release my people in order that they may serve me! 8:2 But if you refuse to release them, then I am going to plague 178 all your territory with frogs. 179 8:3 The Nile will swarm 180 with frogs, and they will come up and go into your house, in your bedroom, and on your bed, and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens and your kneading troughs. 181 8:4 Frogs 182 will come up against you, your people, and all your servants.”’” 183
8:5 The Lord spoke to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your hand with your staff 184 over the rivers, over the canals, and over the ponds, and bring the frogs up over the land of Egypt.’” 8:6 So Aaron extended his hand over the waters of Egypt, and frogs 185 came up and covered the land of Egypt.
8:7 The magicians did the same 186 with their secret arts and brought up frogs on the land of Egypt too. 187
8:8 Then Pharaoh summoned 188 Moses and Aaron and said, “Pray 189 to the Lord that he may take the frogs away 190 from me and my people, and I will release 191 the people that they may sacrifice 192 to the Lord.” 8:9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “You may have the honor over me 193 – when shall I pray for you, your servants, and your people, for the frogs to be removed 194 from you and your houses, so that 195 they will be left 196 only in the Nile?” 8:10 He said, “Tomorrow.” And Moses said, 197 “It will be 198 as you say, 199 so that you may know that there is no one like the Lord our God. 8:11 The frogs will depart from you, your houses, your servants, and your people; they will be left only in the Nile.”
8:12 Then Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried 200 to the Lord because of 201 the frogs that he had brought on 202 Pharaoh. 8:13 The Lord did as Moses asked 203 – the 204 frogs died out of the houses, the villages, and the fields. 8:14 The Egyptians 205 piled them in countless heaps, 206 and the land stank. 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was relief, 207 he hardened 208 his heart and did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 209 8:16
The Third Blow: Gnats 210
The Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your staff and strike the dust of the ground, and it will become 211 gnats 212 throughout all the land of Egypt.’” 8:17 They did so; Aaron extended his hand with his staff, he struck the dust of the ground, and it became gnats on people 213 and on animals. All the dust of the ground became gnats throughout all the land of Egypt. 8:18 When 214 the magicians attempted 215 to bring forth gnats by their secret arts, they could not. So there were gnats on people and on animals. 8:19 The magicians said 216 to Pharaoh, “It is the finger 217 of God!” But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 218 and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 8:20
The Fourth Blow: Flies 219
The Lord 220 said to Moses, “Get up early in the morning and position yourself before Pharaoh as he goes out to the water, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, “Release my people that they may serve me! 8:21 If you do not release 221 my people, then I am going to send 222 swarms of flies 223 on you and on your servants and on your people and in your houses. The houses of the Egyptians will be full of flies, and even the ground they stand on. 224 8:22 But on that day I will mark off 225 the land of Goshen, where my people are staying, 226 so that no swarms of flies will be there, that you may know that I am the Lord in the midst of this land. 227 8:23 I will put a division 228 between my people and your people. This sign will take place 229 tomorrow.”’” 8:24 The Lord did so; a 230 thick 231 swarm of flies came into 232 Pharaoh’s house and into the houses 233 of his servants, and throughout the whole land of Egypt the land was ruined 234 because of the swarms of flies.
8:25 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God within the land.” 235 8:26 But Moses said, “That would not be the right thing to do, 236 for the sacrifices we make 237 to the Lord our God would be an abomination 238 to the Egyptians. 239 If we make sacrifices that are an abomination to the Egyptians right before their eyes, 240 will they not stone us? 241 8:27 We must go 242 on a three-day journey 243 into the desert and sacrifice 244 to the Lord our God, just as he is telling us.” 245
8:28 Pharaoh said, “I will release you 246 so that you may sacrifice 247 to the Lord your God in the desert. Only you must not go very far. 248 Do 249 pray for me.”
8:29 Moses said, “I am going to go out 250 from you and pray to the Lord, and the swarms of flies will go away from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people tomorrow. Only do not let Pharaoh deal falsely again 251 by not releasing 252 the people to sacrifice to the Lord.” 8:30 So Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 8:31 and the Lord did as Moses asked 253 – he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people. Not one remained! 8:32 But Pharaoh hardened 254 his heart this time also and did not release the people. 9:1
The Fifth Blow: Disease 255
Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, “Release my people that they may serve me! 9:2 For if you refuse to release them 256 and continue holding them, 257 9:3 then the hand of the Lord will surely bring 258 a very terrible plague 259 on your livestock in the field, on the horses, the donkeys, the camels, 260 the herds, and the flocks. 9:4 But the Lord will distinguish 261 between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, and nothing 262 will die of all that the Israelites have.”’” 263
9:5 The Lord set 264 an appointed time, saying, “Tomorrow the Lord will do this 265 in the land.” 9:6 And the Lord did this 266 on the next day; 267 all 268 the livestock of the Egyptians 269 died, but of the Israelites’ livestock not one died. 9:7 Pharaoh sent representatives to investigate, 270 and indeed, not even one of the livestock of Israel had died. But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 271 and he did not release the people. 9:8
The Sixth Blow: Boils 272
Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot 273 from a furnace, and have Moses throw it 274 into the air while Pharaoh is watching. 275 9:9 It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt and will cause boils to break out and fester 276 on both people and animals in all the land of Egypt.” 9:10 So they took soot from a furnace and stood before Pharaoh, Moses threw it into the air, and it caused festering boils to break out on both people and animals.
9:11 The magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for boils were on the magicians and on all the Egyptians. 9:12 But the Lord hardened 277 Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted to Moses. 9:13
The Seventh Blow: Hail 278
The Lord said 279 to Moses, “Get up early in the morning, stand 280 before Pharaoh, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: “Release my people so that they may serve me! 9:14 For this time I will send all my plagues 281 on your very self 282 and on your servants and your people, so that you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth. 9:15 For by now I could have stretched out 283 my hand and struck you and your people with plague, and you would have been destroyed 284 from the earth. 9:16 But 285 for this purpose I have caused you to stand: 286 to show you 287 my strength, and so that my name may be declared 288 in all the earth. 9:17 You are still exalting 289 yourself against my people by 290 not releasing them. 9:18 I am going to cause very severe hail to rain down 291 about this time tomorrow, such hail as has never occurred 292 in Egypt from the day it was founded 293 until now. 9:19 So now, send instructions 294 to gather 295 your livestock and all your possessions in the fields to a safe place. Every person 296 or animal caught 297 in the field and not brought into the house – the hail will come down on them, and they will die!”’”
9:20 Those 298 of Pharaoh’s servants who feared the word of the Lord hurried to bring their 299 servants and livestock into the houses, 9:21 but those 300 who did not take 301 the word of the Lord seriously left their servants and their cattle 302 in the field.
9:22 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sky 303 that there may be 304 hail in all the land of Egypt, on people and on animals, 305 and on everything that grows 306 in the field in the land of Egypt.” 9:23 When Moses extended 307 his staff toward the sky, the Lord 308 sent thunder 309 and hail, and fire fell to the earth; 310 so the Lord caused hail to rain down on the land of Egypt. 9:24 Hail fell 311 and fire mingled 312 with the hail; the hail was so severe 313 that there had not been any like it 314 in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation. 9:25 The hail struck everything in the open fields, both 315 people and animals, throughout all the land of Egypt. The hail struck everything that grows 316 in the field, and it broke all the trees of the field to pieces. 9:26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived, was there no hail.
9:27 So Pharaoh sent and summoned Moses and Aaron and said to them, “I have sinned this time! 317 The Lord is righteous, and I and my people are guilty. 318 9:28 Pray to the Lord, for the mighty 319 thunderings and hail are too much! 320 I will release you and you will stay no longer.” 321
9:29 Moses said to him, “When I leave the city 322 I will spread my hands to the Lord, the thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth belongs to the Lord. 323 9:30 But as for you 324 and your servants, I know that you do not yet fear 325 the Lord God.”
9:31 (Now the 326 flax and the barley were struck 327 by the hail, 328 for the barley had ripened 329 and the flax 330 was in bud. 9:32 But the wheat and the spelt 331 were not struck, for they are later crops.) 332
9:33 So Moses left Pharaoh, went out of the city, and spread out his hands to the Lord, and the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain stopped pouring on the earth. 9:34 When Pharaoh saw 333 that the rain and hail and thunder ceased, he sinned again: 334 both he and his servants hardened 335 their hearts. 9:35 So Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 336 and he did not release the Israelites, as the Lord had predicted through Moses. 10:1
The Eighth Blow: Locusts 337
The Lord said 338 to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, in order to display 339 these signs of mine before him, 340 10:2 and in order that in the hearing of your son and your grandson you may tell 341 how I made fools 342 of the Egyptians 343 and about 344 my signs that I displayed 345 among them, so that you may know 346 that I am the Lord.”
10:3 So Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh and told him, “Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: ‘How long do you refuse 347 to humble yourself before me? 348 Release my people so that they may serve me! 10:4 But if you refuse to release my people, I am going to bring 349 locusts 350 into your territory 351 tomorrow. 10:5 They will cover 352 the surface 353 of the earth, so that you 354 will be unable to see the ground. They will eat the remainder of what escaped 355 – what is left over 356 for you – from the hail, and they will eat every tree that grows for you from the field. 10:6 They will fill your houses, the houses of your servants, and all the houses of Egypt, such as 357 neither 358 your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen since they have been 359 in the land until this day!’” Then Moses 360 turned and went out from Pharaoh.
10:7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long 361 will this man be a menace 362 to us? Release the people so that they may serve the Lord their God. Do you not know 363 that Egypt is destroyed?”
10:8 So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve the Lord your God. Exactly who is going with you?” 364 10:9 Moses said, “We will go with our young and our old, with our sons and our daughters, and with our sheep and our cattle we will go, because we are to hold 365 a pilgrim feast for the Lord.”
10:10 He said to them, “The Lord will need to be with you 366 if I release you and your dependents! 367 Watch out! 368 Trouble is right in front of you! 369 10:11 No! 370 Go, you men 371 only, and serve the Lord, for that 372 is what you want.” 373 Then Moses and Aaron 374 were driven 375 out of Pharaoh’s presence.
10:12 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand over the land of Egypt for 376 the locusts, that they may come up over the land of Egypt and eat everything that grows 377 in the ground, everything that the hail has left.” 10:13 So Moses extended his staff over the land of Egypt, and then the Lord 378 brought 379 an east wind on the land all that day and all night. 380 The morning came, 381 and the east wind had brought up 382 the locusts! 10:14 The locusts went up over all the land of Egypt and settled down in all the territory 383 of Egypt. It was very severe; 384 there had been no locusts like them before, nor will there be such ever again. 385 10:15 They covered 386 the surface 387 of all the ground, so that the ground became dark with them, 388 and they ate all the vegetation of the ground and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Nothing green remained on the trees or on anything that grew in the fields throughout the whole land of Egypt. 10:16 389
Then Pharaoh quickly 390 summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “I have sinned 391 against the Lord your God and against you! 10:17 So now, forgive my sin this time only, and pray to the Lord your God that he would only 392 take this death 393 away from me.” 10:18 Moses 394 went out 395 from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 10:19 and the Lord turned a very strong west wind, 396 and it picked up the locusts and blew them into the Red Sea. 397 Not one locust remained in all the territory of Egypt. 10:20 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites. 10:21
The Ninth Blow: Darkness 398
The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward heaven 399 so that there may be 400 darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness so thick it can be felt.” 401
10:22 So Moses extended his hand toward heaven, and there was absolute darkness 402 throughout the land of Egypt for three days. 403 10:23 No one 404 could see 405 another person, and no one could rise from his place for three days. But the Israelites had light in the places where they lived.
10:24 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and said, “Go, serve the Lord – only your flocks and herds will be detained. Even your families 406 may go with you.”
10:25 But Moses said, “Will you also 407 provide us 408 with sacrifices and burnt offerings that we may present them 409 to the Lord our God? 10:26 Our livestock must 410 also go with us! Not a hoof is to be left behind! For we must take 411 these animals 412 to serve the Lord our God. Until we arrive there, we do not know what we must use to serve the Lord.” 413
10:27 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he was not willing to release them. 10:28 Pharaoh said to him, “Go from me! 414 Watch out for yourself! Do not appear before me again, 415 for when 416 you see my face you will die!” 10:29 Moses said, “As you wish! 417 I will not see your face again.” 418 11:1
The Tenth Blow: Death 419
The Lord said to Moses, “I will bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt; after that he will release you from this place. When he releases you, 420 he will drive you out completely 421 from this place. 11:2 Instruct 422 the people that each man and each woman is to request 423 from his or her neighbor 424 items of silver and gold.” 425
11:3 (Now the Lord granted the people favor with 426 the Egyptians. Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, respected by Pharaoh’s servants and by the Egyptian people.) 427
11:4 Moses said, “Thus says the Lord: ‘About midnight 428 I will go throughout Egypt, 429 11:5 and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh 430 who sits on his throne, to the firstborn son of the slave girl who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 11:6 There will be a great cry throughout the whole land of Egypt, such as there has never been, 431 nor ever will be again. 432 11:7 But against any of the Israelites not even a dog will bark 433 against either people or animals, 434 so that you may know that the Lord distinguishes 435 between Egypt and Israel.’ 11:8 All these your servants will come down to me and bow down 436 to me, saying, ‘Go, you and all the people who follow 437 you,’ and after that I will go out.” Then Moses 438 went out from Pharaoh in great anger.
11:9 The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not listen to you, so that my wonders 439 may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”
11:10 So Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, but the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites from his land. 12:1
The Institution of the Passover 440
The Lord said 441 to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 442 12:2 “This month is to be your beginning of months; it will be your first month of the year. 443 12:3 Tell the whole community of Israel, ‘In the tenth day of this month they each 444 must take a lamb 445 for themselves according to their families 446 – a lamb for each household. 447 12:4 If any household is too small 448 for a lamb, 449 the man 450 and his next-door neighbor 451 are to take 452 a lamb according to the number of people – you will make your count for the lamb according to how much each one can eat. 453 12:5 Your lamb must be 454 perfect, 455 a male, one year old; 456 you may take 457 it from the sheep or from the goats. 12:6 You must care for it 458 until the fourteenth day of this month, and then the whole community 459 of Israel will kill it around sundown. 460 12:7 They will take some of the blood and put it on the two side posts and top of the doorframe of the houses where they will eat it. 12:8 They will eat the meat the same night; 461 they will eat it roasted over the fire with bread made without yeast 462 and with bitter herbs. 12:9 Do not eat it raw 463 or boiled in water, but roast it over the fire with its head, its legs, and its entrails. 12:10 You must leave nothing until morning, but you must burn with fire whatever remains of it until morning. 12:11 This is how you are to eat it – dressed to travel, 464 your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. You are to eat it in haste. It is the Lord’s Passover. 465
12:12 I will pass through 466 the land of Egypt in the same 467 night, and I will attack 468 all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both of humans and of animals, 469 and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment. 470 I am the Lord. 12:13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, so that when I see 471 the blood I will pass over you, 472 and this plague 473 will not fall on you to destroy you 474 when I attack 475 the land of Egypt. 476
12:14 This day will become 477 a memorial 478 for you, and you will celebrate it as a festival 479 to the Lord – you will celebrate it perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 480 12:15 For seven days 481 you must eat 482 bread made without yeast. 483 Surely 484 on the first day you must put away yeast from your houses because anyone who eats bread made with yeast 485 from the first day to the seventh day will be cut off 486 from Israel.
12:16 On the first day there will be a holy convocation, 487 and on the seventh day there will be a holy convocation for you. You must do no work of any kind 488 on them, only what every person will eat – that alone may be prepared for you. 12:17 So you will keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because on this very 489 day I brought your regiments 490 out from the land of Egypt, and so you must keep this day perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 491 12:18 In the first month, 492 from the fourteenth day of the month, in the evening, you will eat bread made without yeast until the twenty-first day of the month in the evening. 12:19 For seven days 493 yeast must not be found in your houses, for whoever eats what is made with yeast – that person 494 will be cut off from the community of Israel, whether a foreigner 495 or one born in the land. 12:20 You will not eat anything made with yeast; in all the places where you live you must eat bread made without yeast.’”
12:21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel, and told them, “Go and select 496 for yourselves a lamb or young goat 497 for your families, and kill the Passover animals. 498 12:22 Take a branch of hyssop, 499 dip it in the blood that is in the basin, 500 and apply to the top of the doorframe and the two side posts some of the blood that is in the basin. Not one of you is to go out 501 the door of his house until morning. 12:23 For the Lord will pass through to strike Egypt, and when he sees 502 the blood on the top of the doorframe and the two side posts, then the Lord will pass over the door, and he will not permit the destroyer 503 to enter your houses to strike you. 504 12:24 You must observe this event as an ordinance for you and for your children forever. 12:25 When you enter the land that the Lord will give to you, just as he said, you must observe 505 this ceremony. 12:26 When your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ 506 – 12:27 then you will say, ‘It is the sacrifice 507 of the Lord’s Passover, when he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when he struck 508 Egypt and delivered our households.’” The people bowed down low 509 to the ground, 12:28 and the Israelites went away and did exactly as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron. 510 12:29
The Deliverance from Egypt 511
It happened 512 at midnight – the Lord attacked all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the prison, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 12:30 Pharaoh got up 513 in the night, 514 along with all his servants and all Egypt, and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was no house 515 in which there was not someone dead. 12:31 Pharaoh 516 summoned Moses and Aaron in the night and said, “Get up, get out 517 from among my people, both you and the Israelites! Go, serve the Lord as you have requested! 518 12:32 Also, take your flocks and your herds, just as you have requested, and leave. But bless me also.” 519
12:33 The Egyptians were urging 520 the people on, in order to send them out of the land quickly, 521 for they were saying, “We are all dead!” 12:34 So the people took their dough before the yeast was added, 522 with their kneading troughs bound up in their clothing on their shoulders. 12:35 Now the Israelites had done 523 as Moses told them – they had requested from the Egyptians 524 silver and gold items and clothing. 12:36 The Lord 525 gave the people favor 526 in the sight of the Egyptians, and they gave them whatever they wanted, 527 and so they plundered Egypt. 528
12:37 The Israelites journeyed 529 from Rameses 530 to Sukkoth. There were about 600,000 men 531 on foot, plus their dependants. 532 12:38 A mixed multitude 533 also went up with them, and flocks and herds – a very large number of cattle. 534 12:39 They baked cakes of bread without yeast using the dough they had brought from Egypt, for it was made without yeast – because they were thrust out 535 of Egypt and were not able to delay, they 536 could not prepare 537 food for themselves either.
12:40 Now the length of time the Israelites lived in Egypt was 430 years. 538 12:41 At the end of the 430 years, on the very day, all the regiments 539 of the Lord went out of the land of Egypt. 12:42 It was a night of vigil for the Lord to bring them out from the land of Egypt, 540 and so 541 on this night all Israel is to keep the vigil 542 to the Lord for generations to come. 12:43
Participation in the Passover 543
The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover. No foreigner may 544 share in eating it. 545 12:44 But everyone’s servant who is bought for money, after you have circumcised him, may eat it. 12:45 A foreigner and a hired worker must not eat it. 12:46 It must be eaten in one house; you must not bring any of the meat outside the house, and you must not break a bone of it. 12:47 The whole community of Israel must observe it.
12:48 “When a foreigner lives 546 with you and wants to observe the Passover to the Lord, all his males must be circumcised, 547 and then he may approach and observe it, and he will be like one who is born in the land 548 – but no uncircumcised person may eat of it. 12:49 The same law will apply 549 to the person who is native-born and to the foreigner who lives among you.”
12:50 So all the Israelites did exactly as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron. 550 12:51 And on this very day the Lord brought the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments. 13:1
The Law of the Firstborn 551
The Lord spoke 552 to Moses: 13:2 “Set apart 553 to me every firstborn male – the first offspring of every womb 554 among the Israelites, whether human or animal; it is mine.” 555
13:3 Moses said to the people, “Remember 556 this day on which you came out from Egypt, from the place where you were enslaved, 557 for the Lord brought you out of there 558 with a mighty hand – and no bread made with yeast may be eaten. 559 13:4 On this day, 560 in the month of Abib, 561 you are going out. 562
13:5 When 563 the Lord brings you to the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which he swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, 564 then you will keep 565 this ceremony 566 in this month. 13:6 For seven days 567 you must eat 568 bread made without yeast, and on the seventh day there is to be 569 a festival to the Lord. 13:7 Bread made without yeast must be eaten 570 for seven days; 571 no bread made with yeast shall be seen 572 among you, and you must have no yeast among you within any of your borders.
13:8 You are to tell your son 573 on that day, 574 ‘It is 575 because of what 576 the Lord did for me when I came out of Egypt.’ 13:9 577 It 578 will be a sign 579 for you on your hand and a memorial 580 on your forehead, 581 so that the law of the Lord may be 582 in your mouth, 583 for 584 with a mighty hand the Lord brought you out of Egypt. 13:10 So you must keep 585 this ordinance at its appointed time from year to year. 586
13:11 When the Lord brings you 587 into the land of the Canaanites, 588 as he swore to you and to your fathers, and gives it 589 to you, 13:12 then you must give over 590 to the Lord the first offspring of every womb. 591 Every firstling 592 of a beast that you have 593 – the males will be the Lord’s. 594 13:13 Every firstling 595 of a donkey you must redeem 596 with a lamb, and if you do not redeem it, then you must break its neck. 597 Every firstborn of 598 your sons you must redeem. 13:14 599
In the future, 600 when your son asks you 601 ‘What is this?’ 602 you are to tell him, ‘With a mighty hand 603 the Lord brought us out from Egypt, from the land of slavery. 604 13:15 When Pharaoh stubbornly refused 605 to release us, the Lord killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of people to the firstborn of animals. 606 That is why I am sacrificing 607 to the Lord the first male offspring of every womb, but all my firstborn sons I redeem.’ 13:16 It will be for a sign on your hand and for frontlets 608 on your forehead, for with a mighty hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt.” 609 13:17
The Leading of God 610
When Pharaoh released 611 the people, God did not lead them 612 by the way to the land 613 of the Philistines, 614 although 615 that was nearby, for God said, 616 “Lest 617 the people change their minds 618 and return to Egypt when they experience 619 war.” 13:18 So God brought the people around by the way of the desert to the Red Sea, 620 and the Israelites went up from the land of Egypt prepared for battle. 621
13:19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for Joseph 622 had made the Israelites solemnly swear, 623 “God will surely attend 624 to you, and you will carry 625 my bones up from this place with you.”
13:20 They journeyed from Sukkoth and camped in Etham, on the edge of the desert. 13:21 Now the Lord was going before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them in the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, 626 so that they could 627 travel day or night. 628 13:22 He did not remove the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night from before the people. 629 14:1
The Victory at the Red Sea 630
The Lord spoke to Moses: 14:2 “Tell the Israelites that they must turn and camp 631 before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea; you are to camp by the sea before Baal Zephon opposite it. 632 14:3 Pharaoh will think 633 regarding the Israelites, ‘They are wandering around confused 634 in the land – the desert has closed in on them.’ 635 14:4 I will harden 636 Pharaoh’s heart, and he will chase after them. I will gain honor 637 because of Pharaoh and because of all his army, and the Egyptians will know 638 that I am the Lord.” So this is what they did. 639
14:5 When it was reported 640 to the king of Egypt that the people had fled, 641 the heart of Pharaoh and his servants was turned against the people, and the king and his servants said, 642 “What in the world have we done? 643 For we have released the people of Israel 644 from serving us!” 14:6 Then he prepared 645 his chariots and took his army 646 with him. 14:7 He took six hundred select 647 chariots, and all the rest of the chariots of Egypt, 648 and officers 649 on all of them.
14:8 But the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he chased after the Israelites. Now the Israelites were going out defiantly. 650 14:9 The Egyptians chased after them, and all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh and his horsemen and his army overtook them camping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-Zephon. 14:10 When 651 Pharaoh got closer, 652 the Israelites looked up, 653 and there were the Egyptians marching after them, 654 and they were terrified. 655 The Israelites cried out to the Lord, 656 14:11 and they said to Moses, “Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the desert? 657 What in the world 658 have you done to us by bringing 659 us out of Egypt? 14:12 Isn’t this what we told you 660 in Egypt, ‘Leave us alone so that we can serve the Egyptians, 661 because it is better for us to serve 662 the Egyptians than to die in the desert!’” 663
14:13 Moses said to the people, “Do not fear! 664 Stand firm 665 and see 666 the salvation 667 of the Lord that he will provide 668 for you today; for the Egyptians that you see today you will never, ever see again. 669 14:14 The Lord 670 will fight for you, and you can be still.” 671
14:15 The Lord said to Moses, “Why do you cry out to me? Tell the Israelites to move on. 672 14:16 And as for you, 673 lift up your staff and extend your hand toward the sea and divide it, so that 674 the Israelites may go through the middle of the sea on dry ground. 14:17 And as for me, I am going to harden 675 the hearts of the Egyptians so that 676 they will come after them, that I may be honored 677 because 678 of Pharaoh and his army and his chariots and his horsemen. 14:18 And the Egyptians will know 679 that I am the Lord when I have gained my honor 680 because of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.”
14:19 The angel of God, who was going before the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them, and the pillar 681 of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them. 14:20 It came between the Egyptian camp and the Israelite camp; it was a dark cloud 682 and it lit up the night so that one camp did not come near the other 683 the whole night. 684 14:21 Moses stretched out his hand toward the sea, and the Lord drove the sea apart 685 by a strong east wind all that night, and he made the sea into dry land, and the water was divided. 14:22 So the Israelites went through the middle of the sea on dry ground, the water forming a wall 686 for them on their right and on their left.
14:23 The Egyptians chased them and followed them into the middle of the sea – all the horses of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen. 14:24 In the morning watch 687 the Lord looked down 688 on the Egyptian army 689 through the pillar of fire and cloud, and he threw the Egyptian army 690 into a panic. 691 14:25 He jammed 692 the wheels of their chariots so that they had difficulty driving, 693 and the Egyptians said, “Let’s flee 694 from Israel, for the Lord fights 695 for them against Egypt!”
14:26 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sea, so that the waters may flow 696 back on the Egyptians, on their chariots, and on their horsemen!” 14:27 So Moses extended his hand toward the sea, and the sea returned to its normal state 697 when the sun began to rise. 698 Now the Egyptians were fleeing 699 before it, but the Lord overthrew 700 the Egyptians in the middle of the sea. 14:28 The water returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen and all the army of Pharaoh that was coming after the Israelites into the sea 701 – not so much as one of them survived! 702 14:29 But the Israelites walked on dry ground in the middle of the sea, the water forming a wall for them on their right and on their left. 14:30 So the Lord saved 703 Israel on that day from the power 704 of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead 705 on the shore of the sea. 14:31 When Israel saw 706 the great power 707 that the Lord had exercised 708 over the Egyptians, they 709 feared the Lord, and they believed in 710 the Lord and in his servant Moses. 711 15:1
The Song of Triumph 712
Then Moses and the Israelites sang 713 this song to the Lord. They said, 714
“I will sing 715 to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously, 716
the horse and its rider 717 he has thrown into the sea.
15:2 The Lord 718 is my strength and my song, 719
and he has become my salvation.
This is my God, and I will praise him, 720
my father’s God, and I will exalt him.
15:3 The Lord is a warrior, 721
the Lord is his name. 722
15:4 The chariots of Pharaoh 723 and his army he has thrown into the sea,
and his chosen 724 officers were drowned 725 in the Red Sea.
15:5 The depths have covered them, 726
they went down to the bottom 727 like a stone.
15:6 Your right hand, O Lord, was majestic 728 in power,
your right hand, O Lord, shattered the enemy.
15:7 In the abundance of your majesty 729 you have overthrown 730
those who rise up against you. 731
You sent forth 732 your wrath; 733
it consumed them 734 like stubble.
15:8 By the blast of your nostrils 735 the waters were piled up,
the flowing water stood upright like a heap, 736
and the deep waters were solidified in the heart of the sea.
15:9 The enemy said, ‘I will chase, 737 I will overtake,
I will divide the spoil;
my desire 738 will be satisfied on them.
I will draw 739 my sword, my hand will destroy them.’ 740
15:10 But 741 you blew with your breath, and 742 the sea covered them.
They sank 743 like lead in the mighty waters.
15:11 Who is like you, 744 O Lord, among the gods? 745
Who is like you? – majestic in holiness, fearful in praises, 746 working wonders?
15:12 You stretched out your right hand,
the earth swallowed them. 747
15:13 By your loyal love you will lead 748 the people whom 749 you have redeemed;
you will guide 750 them by your strength to your holy dwelling place.
15:14 The nations will hear 751 and tremble;
anguish 752 will seize 753 the inhabitants of Philistia.
15:15 Then the chiefs of Edom will be terrified, 754
trembling will seize 755 the leaders of Moab,
and the inhabitants of Canaan will shake.
15:16 Fear and dread 756 will fall 757 on them;
by the greatness 758 of your arm they will be as still as stone 759
until 760 your people pass by, O Lord,
until the people whom you have bought 761 pass by.
15:17 You will bring them in 762 and plant them in the mountain 763 of your inheritance,
in the place you made 764 for your residence, O Lord,
the sanctuary, O Lord, that your hands have established.
15:18 The Lord will reign forever and ever!
15:19 For the horses of Pharaoh came with his chariots and his footmen into the sea,
and the Lord brought back the waters of the sea on them,
but the Israelites walked on dry land in the middle of the sea.”
15:20 Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a hand-drum in her hand, and all the women went out after her with hand-drums and with dances. 765 15:21 Miriam sang in response 766 to them, “Sing to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously; the horse and its rider he has thrown into the sea.” 767 15:22
The Bitter Water 768
Then Moses led Israel to journey 769 away from the Red Sea. They went out to the Desert of Shur, walked for three days 770 into the desert, and found no water. 15:23 Then they came to Marah, 771 but they were not able to drink 772 the waters of Marah, because 773 they were bitter. 774 (That is 775 why its name was 776 Marah.)
15:24 So the people murmured 777 against Moses, saying, “What can 778 we drink?” 15:25 He cried out to the Lord, and the Lord showed him 779 a tree. 780 When Moses 781 threw it into the water, the water became safe to drink. There the Lord 782 made for them 783 a binding ordinance, 784 and there he tested 785 them. 15:26 He said, “If you will diligently obey 786 the Lord your God, and do what is right 787 in his sight, and pay attention 788 to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, then all 789 the diseases 790 that I brought on the Egyptians I will not bring on you, for I, the Lord, am your healer.” 791
15:27 Then they came to Elim, 792 where there were twelve wells of water and seventy palm trees, and they camped there by the water.