The Source of Sufficiency 1
Moses answered again, 2 “And if 3 they do not believe me or pay attention to me, 4 but say, ‘The Lord has not appeared to you’?” 4:2 The Lord said to him, “What is that in your hand?” He said, “A staff.” 5 4:3 The Lord 6 said, “Throw it to the ground.” So he threw it to the ground, and it became a snake, 7 and Moses ran from it. 4:4 But the Lord said to Moses, “Put out your hand and grab it by the tail” – so he put out his hand and caught it, and it became a staff in his hand 8 – 4:5 “that they may believe that the Lord, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to you.”
4:6 The Lord also said to him, “Put your hand into your robe.” 9 So he put his hand into his robe, and when he brought it out – there was his hand, 10 leprous like snow! 11 4:7 He said, “Put your hand back into your robe.” So he put his hand back into his robe, and when he brought it out from his robe – there it was, 12 restored 13 like the rest of his skin! 14 4:8 “If 15 they do not believe you or pay attention to 16 the former sign, then they may 17 believe the latter sign. 18 4:9 And if 19 they do not believe even these two signs or listen to you, 20 then take 21 some water from the Nile and pour it out on the dry ground. The water you take out of the Nile will become blood on the dry ground.” 22
4:10 Then Moses said to the Lord, 23 “O 24 my Lord, 25 I am not an eloquent man, 26 neither in the past 27 nor since you have spoken to your servant, for I am slow of speech and slow of tongue.” 28
4:11 The Lord said to him, “Who gave 29 a mouth to man, or who makes a person mute or deaf or seeing or blind? Is it not I, the Lord? 30 4:12 So now go, and I will be with your mouth 31 and will teach you 32 what you must say.” 33
4:13 But Moses said, 34 “O 35 my Lord, please send anyone else whom you wish to send!” 36
4:14 Then the Lord became angry with 37 Moses, and he said, “What about 38 your brother Aaron the Levite? 39 I know that he can speak very well. 40 Moreover, he is coming 41 to meet you, and when he sees you he will be glad in his heart. 42
4:15 “So you are to speak to him and put the words in his mouth. And as for me, I will be with your mouth 43 and with his mouth, 44 and I will teach you both 45 what you must do. 46 4:16 He 47 will speak for you to the people, and it will be as if 48 he 49 were your mouth 50 and as if you were his God. 51 4:17 You will also take in your hand this staff, with which you will do the signs.” 52 4:18
The Return of Moses 53
So Moses went back 54 to his father-in-law Jethro and said to him, “Let me go, so that I may return 55 to my relatives 56 in Egypt and see 57 if they are still alive.” Jethro said to Moses, “Go in peace.” 4:19 The Lord said to Moses in Midian, “Go back 58 to Egypt, because all the men who were seeking your life are dead.” 59 4:20 Then Moses took 60 his wife and sons 61 and put them on a donkey and headed back 62 to the land of Egypt, and Moses took the staff of God in his hand. 4:21 The Lord said 63 to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, 64 see that you 65 do before Pharaoh all the wonders I have put under your control. 66 But I will harden 67 his heart 68 and 69 he will not let the people go. 4:22 You must say 70 to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says 71 the Lord, “Israel is my son, my firstborn, 72 4:23 and I said to you, ‘Let my son go that he may serve 73 me,’ but since you have refused to let him go, 74 I will surely kill 75 your son, your firstborn!”’”
4:24 Now on the way, at a place where they stopped for the night, 76 the Lord met Moses and sought to kill him. 77 4:25 But Zipporah took a flint knife, cut off the foreskin of her son and touched it to Moses’ feet, 78 and said, “Surely you are a bridegroom of blood 79 to me.” 4:26 So the Lord 80 let him alone. (At that time 81 she said, “A bridegroom of blood,” referring to 82 the circumcision.)
4:27 The Lord said 83 to Aaron, “Go to the wilderness to meet Moses. So he went and met him at the mountain of God 84 and greeted him with a kiss. 85 4:28 Moses told Aaron all the words of the Lord who had 86 sent him and all the signs that he had commanded him. 4:29 Then Moses and Aaron went and brought together all the Israelite elders. 87 4:30 Aaron spoke 88 all the words that the Lord had spoken to Moses and did the signs in the sight of the people, 4:31 and the people believed. When they heard 89 that the Lord had attended to 90 the Israelites and that he had seen their affliction, they bowed down close to the ground. 91 5:1
Opposition to the Plan of God 92
Afterward Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said, “Thus says the Lord, 93 the God of Israel, ‘Release 94 my people so that they may hold a pilgrim feast 95 to me in the desert.’” 5:2 But Pharaoh said, “Who is the Lord 96 that 97 I should obey him 98 by releasing 99 Israel? I do not know the Lord, 100 and I will not release Israel!” 5:3 And they said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Let us go a three-day journey 101 into the desert so that we may sacrifice 102 to the Lord our God, so that he does not strike us with plague or the sword.” 103 5:4 The king of Egypt said to them, “Moses and Aaron, why do you cause the people to refrain from their work? 104 Return to your labor!” 5:5 Pharaoh was thinking, 105 “The people of the land are now many, and you are giving them rest from their labor.”
5:6 That same day Pharaoh commanded 106 the slave masters and foremen 107 who were 108 over the people: 109 5:7 “You must no longer 110 give straw to the people for making bricks 111 as before. 112 Let them go 113 and collect straw for themselves. 5:8 But you must require 114 of them the same quota of bricks that they were making before. 115 Do not reduce it, for they are slackers. 116 That is why they are crying, ‘Let us go sacrifice to our God.’ 5:9 Make the work harder 117 for the men so they will keep at it 118 and pay no attention to lying words!” 119
5:10 So the slave masters of the people and their foremen went to the Israelites and said, 120 “Thus says Pharaoh: ‘I am not giving 121 you straw. 5:11 You 122 go get straw for yourselves wherever you can 123 find it, because there will be no reduction at all in your workload.’” 5:12 So the people spread out 124 through all the land of Egypt to collect stubble for straw. 5:13 The slave masters were pressuring 125 them, saying, “Complete 126 your work for each day, just like when there was straw!” 5:14 The Israelite foremen whom Pharaoh’s slave masters had set over them were beaten and were asked, 127 “Why did you not complete your requirement for brickmaking as in the past – both yesterday and today?” 128 5:15 129
The Israelite foremen went and cried out to Pharaoh, “Why are you treating 130 your servants this way? 5:16 No straw is given to your servants, but we are told, 131 ‘Make bricks!’ Your servants are even 132 being beaten, but the fault 133 is with your people.”
5:17 But Pharaoh replied, 134 “You are slackers! Slackers! 135 That is why you are saying, ‘Let us go sacrifice to the Lord.’ 5:18 So now, get back to work! 136 You will not be given straw, but you must still produce 137 your quota 138 of bricks!” 5:19 The Israelite foremen saw 139 that they 140 were in trouble when they were told, 141 “You must not reduce the daily quota of your bricks.”
5:20 When they went out from Pharaoh, they encountered Moses and Aaron standing there to meet them, 142 5:21 and they said to them, “May the Lord look on you and judge, 143 because you have made us stink 144 in the opinion of 145 Pharaoh and his servants, 146 so that you have given them an excuse to kill us!” 147 5:22
The Assurance of Deliverance 148
Moses returned 149 to the Lord, and said, “Lord, 150 why have you caused trouble for this people? 151 Why did you ever 152 send me? 5:23 From the time I went to speak to Pharaoh in your name, he has caused trouble 153 for this people, and you have certainly not rescued 154 them!” 155
6:1 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Now you will see what I will do to Pharaoh, 156 for compelled by my strong hand 157 he will release them, and by my strong hand he will drive them out of his land.” 158
6:2 God spoke 159 to Moses and said to him, “I am the Lord. 160 6:3 I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as 161 God Almighty, 162 but by 163 my name ‘the Lord’ 164 I was not known to them. 165 6:4 I also established my covenant with them 166 to give them the land of Canaan, where they were living as resident foreigners. 167 6:5 I 168 have also heard 169 the groaning of the Israelites, whom the Egyptians are enslaving, 170 and I have remembered my covenant. 171 6:6 Therefore, tell the Israelites, ‘I am the Lord. I will bring you out 172 from your enslavement to 173 the Egyptians, I will rescue you from the hard labor they impose, 174 and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments. 6:7 I will take you to myself for a people, and I will be your God. 175 Then you will know that I am the Lord your God, who brought you out from your enslavement to 176 the Egyptians. 6:8 I will bring you to the land I swore to give 177 to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob – and I will give it to you 178 as a possession. I am the Lord!’” 6:9 179
Moses told this 180 to the Israelites, but they did not listen to him 181 because of their discouragement 182 and hard labor. 6:10 Then the Lord said to Moses, 6:11 “Go, tell Pharaoh king of Egypt that he must release 183 the Israelites from his land.” 6:12 But Moses replied to 184 the Lord, “If the Israelites did not listen to me, then 185 how will Pharaoh listen to me, since 186 I speak with difficulty?” 187
6:13 The Lord spoke 188 to Moses and Aaron and gave them a charge 189 for the Israelites and Pharaoh king of Egypt to bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt. 6:14
The Ancestry of the Deliverer 190
These are the heads of their fathers’ households: 191
The sons 192 of Reuben, the firstborn son of Israel, were Hanoch and Pallu, Hezron and Carmi. These were the clans 193 of Reuben.
6:15 The sons of Simeon were Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jakin, Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman. These were the clans of Simeon.
6:16 Now these are the names of the sons of Levi, according to their records: 194 Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. (The length of Levi’s life was 137 years.)
6:17 The sons of Gershon, by their families, were Libni and Shimei.
6:18 The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. (The length of Kohath’s life was 133 years.)
6:19 The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi. These were the clans of Levi, according to their records.
6:20 Amram married 195 his father’s sister Jochebed, and she bore him Aaron and Moses. (The length of Amram’s life was 137 years.)
6:21 The sons of Izhar were Korah, Nepheg, and Zikri.
6:22 The sons of Uzziel were Mishael, Elzaphan, and Sithri.
6:23 Aaron married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab and sister of Nahshon, and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.
6:24 The sons of Korah were Assir, Elkanah, and Abiasaph. These were the Korahite clans.
6:25 Now Eleazar son of Aaron married one of the daughters of Putiel and she bore him Phinehas.
These are the heads of the fathers’ households 196 of Levi according to their clans.
6:26 It was the same Aaron and Moses to whom the Lord said, “Bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments.” 197 6:27 They were the men who were speaking to Pharaoh king of Egypt, in order to bring the Israelites out of Egypt. It was the same Moses and Aaron. 6:28
The Authentication of the Word 198
When 199 the Lord spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt, 6:29 he said to him, 200 “I am the Lord. Tell 201 Pharaoh king of Egypt all that 202 I am telling 203 you.” 6:30 But Moses said before the Lord, “Since I speak with difficulty, 204 why should Pharaoh listen to me?”
7:1 So the Lord said to Moses, “See, I have made you like God 205 to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet. 206 7:2 You are to speak 207 everything I command you, 208 and your brother Aaron is to tell Pharaoh that he must release 209 the Israelites from his land. 7:3 But I will harden 210 Pharaoh’s heart, and although I will multiply 211 my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt, 7:4 Pharaoh will not listen to you. 212 I will reach into 213 Egypt and bring out my regiments, 214 my people the Israelites, from the land of Egypt with great acts of judgment. 7:5 Then 215 the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord, when I extend my hand 216 over Egypt and bring the Israelites out from among them.
7:6 And Moses and Aaron did so; they did just as the Lord commanded them. 7:7 Now Moses was eighty years old and Aaron was eighty-three years old when they spoke to Pharaoh.
7:8 The Lord said 217 to Moses and Aaron, 218 7:9 “When Pharaoh says to you, ‘Do 219 a miracle,’ and you say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down 220 before Pharaoh,’ it will become 221 a snake.” 7:10 When 222 Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh, they did so, just as the Lord had commanded them – Aaron threw 223 down his staff before Pharaoh and his servants and it became a snake. 224 7:11 Then Pharaoh also summoned wise men and sorcerers, 225 and the magicians 226 of Egypt by their secret arts 227 did the same thing. 7:12 Each man 228 threw down his staff, and the staffs became snakes. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs. 7:13 Yet Pharaoh’s heart became hard, 229 and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 7:14
The First Blow: Water to Blood 230
The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is hard; 231 he refuses to release 232 the people. 7:15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning when 233 he goes out to the water. Position yourself 234 to meet him by the edge of the Nile, 235 and take 236 in your hand the staff 237 that was turned into a snake. 7:16 Tell him, ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to you to say, 238 “Release my people, that they may serve me 239 in the desert!” But until now 240 you have not listened. 241 7:17 Thus says the Lord: “By this you will know that I am the Lord: I am going to strike 242 the water of the Nile with the staff that is in my hand, and it will be turned into blood. 243 7:18 Fish 244 in the Nile will die, the Nile will stink, and the Egyptians will be unable 245 to drink water from the Nile.”’” 7:19 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your staff and stretch out your hand over Egypt’s waters – over their rivers, over their canals, 246 over their ponds, and over all their reservoirs 247 – so that it becomes 248 blood.’ There will be blood everywhere in 249 the land of Egypt, even in wooden and stone containers.” 7:20 Moses and Aaron did so, 250 just as the Lord had commanded. Moses raised 251 the staff 252 and struck the water that was in the Nile right before the eyes 253 of Pharaoh and his servants, 254 and all the water that was in the Nile was turned to blood. 255 7:21 When the fish 256 that were in the Nile died, the Nile began 257 to stink, so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood 258 everywhere in the land of Egypt! 7:22 But the magicians of Egypt did the same 259 by their secret arts, and so 260 Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 261 and he refused to listen to Moses and Aaron 262 – just as the Lord had predicted. 7:23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house. He did not pay any attention to this. 263 7:24 All the Egyptians dug around the Nile for water to drink, 264 because they could not drink the water of the Nile. 7:25
The Second Blow: Frogs 265
Seven full days passed 266 after the Lord struck 267 the Nile. 8:1 268 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord: “Release my people in order that they may serve me! 8:2 But if you refuse to release them, then I am going to plague 269 all your territory with frogs. 270 8:3 The Nile will swarm 271 with frogs, and they will come up and go into your house, in your bedroom, and on your bed, and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens and your kneading troughs. 272 8:4 Frogs 273 will come up against you, your people, and all your servants.”’” 274
8:5 The Lord spoke to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your hand with your staff 275 over the rivers, over the canals, and over the ponds, and bring the frogs up over the land of Egypt.’” 8:6 So Aaron extended his hand over the waters of Egypt, and frogs 276 came up and covered the land of Egypt.
8:7 The magicians did the same 277 with their secret arts and brought up frogs on the land of Egypt too. 278
8:8 Then Pharaoh summoned 279 Moses and Aaron and said, “Pray 280 to the Lord that he may take the frogs away 281 from me and my people, and I will release 282 the people that they may sacrifice 283 to the Lord.” 8:9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “You may have the honor over me 284 – when shall I pray for you, your servants, and your people, for the frogs to be removed 285 from you and your houses, so that 286 they will be left 287 only in the Nile?” 8:10 He said, “Tomorrow.” And Moses said, 288 “It will be 289 as you say, 290 so that you may know that there is no one like the Lord our God. 8:11 The frogs will depart from you, your houses, your servants, and your people; they will be left only in the Nile.”
8:12 Then Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried 291 to the Lord because of 292 the frogs that he had brought on 293 Pharaoh. 8:13 The Lord did as Moses asked 294 – the 295 frogs died out of the houses, the villages, and the fields. 8:14 The Egyptians 296 piled them in countless heaps, 297 and the land stank. 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was relief, 298 he hardened 299 his heart and did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 300 8:16
The Third Blow: Gnats 301
The Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your staff and strike the dust of the ground, and it will become 302 gnats 303 throughout all the land of Egypt.’” 8:17 They did so; Aaron extended his hand with his staff, he struck the dust of the ground, and it became gnats on people 304 and on animals. All the dust of the ground became gnats throughout all the land of Egypt. 8:18 When 305 the magicians attempted 306 to bring forth gnats by their secret arts, they could not. So there were gnats on people and on animals. 8:19 The magicians said 307 to Pharaoh, “It is the finger 308 of God!” But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 309 and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 8:20
The Fourth Blow: Flies 310
The Lord 311 said to Moses, “Get up early in the morning and position yourself before Pharaoh as he goes out to the water, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, “Release my people that they may serve me! 8:21 If you do not release 312 my people, then I am going to send 313 swarms of flies 314 on you and on your servants and on your people and in your houses. The houses of the Egyptians will be full of flies, and even the ground they stand on. 315 8:22 But on that day I will mark off 316 the land of Goshen, where my people are staying, 317 so that no swarms of flies will be there, that you may know that I am the Lord in the midst of this land. 318 8:23 I will put a division 319 between my people and your people. This sign will take place 320 tomorrow.”’” 8:24 The Lord did so; a 321 thick 322 swarm of flies came into 323 Pharaoh’s house and into the houses 324 of his servants, and throughout the whole land of Egypt the land was ruined 325 because of the swarms of flies.
8:25 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God within the land.” 326 8:26 But Moses said, “That would not be the right thing to do, 327 for the sacrifices we make 328 to the Lord our God would be an abomination 329 to the Egyptians. 330 If we make sacrifices that are an abomination to the Egyptians right before their eyes, 331 will they not stone us? 332 8:27 We must go 333 on a three-day journey 334 into the desert and sacrifice 335 to the Lord our God, just as he is telling us.” 336
8:28 Pharaoh said, “I will release you 337 so that you may sacrifice 338 to the Lord your God in the desert. Only you must not go very far. 339 Do 340 pray for me.”
8:29 Moses said, “I am going to go out 341 from you and pray to the Lord, and the swarms of flies will go away from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people tomorrow. Only do not let Pharaoh deal falsely again 342 by not releasing 343 the people to sacrifice to the Lord.” 8:30 So Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 8:31 and the Lord did as Moses asked 344 – he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people. Not one remained! 8:32 But Pharaoh hardened 345 his heart this time also and did not release the people. 9:1
The Fifth Blow: Disease 346
Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, “Release my people that they may serve me! 9:2 For if you refuse to release them 347 and continue holding them, 348 9:3 then the hand of the Lord will surely bring 349 a very terrible plague 350 on your livestock in the field, on the horses, the donkeys, the camels, 351 the herds, and the flocks. 9:4 But the Lord will distinguish 352 between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, and nothing 353 will die of all that the Israelites have.”’” 354
9:5 The Lord set 355 an appointed time, saying, “Tomorrow the Lord will do this 356 in the land.” 9:6 And the Lord did this 357 on the next day; 358 all 359 the livestock of the Egyptians 360 died, but of the Israelites’ livestock not one died. 9:7 Pharaoh sent representatives to investigate, 361 and indeed, not even one of the livestock of Israel had died. But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 362 and he did not release the people. 9:8
The Sixth Blow: Boils 363
Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot 364 from a furnace, and have Moses throw it 365 into the air while Pharaoh is watching. 366 9:9 It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt and will cause boils to break out and fester 367 on both people and animals in all the land of Egypt.” 9:10 So they took soot from a furnace and stood before Pharaoh, Moses threw it into the air, and it caused festering boils to break out on both people and animals.
9:11 The magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for boils were on the magicians and on all the Egyptians. 9:12 But the Lord hardened 368 Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted to Moses. 9:13
The Seventh Blow: Hail 369
The Lord said 370 to Moses, “Get up early in the morning, stand 371 before Pharaoh, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: “Release my people so that they may serve me! 9:14 For this time I will send all my plagues 372 on your very self 373 and on your servants and your people, so that you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth. 9:15 For by now I could have stretched out 374 my hand and struck you and your people with plague, and you would have been destroyed 375 from the earth. 9:16 But 376 for this purpose I have caused you to stand: 377 to show you 378 my strength, and so that my name may be declared 379 in all the earth. 9:17 You are still exalting 380 yourself against my people by 381 not releasing them. 9:18 I am going to cause very severe hail to rain down 382 about this time tomorrow, such hail as has never occurred 383 in Egypt from the day it was founded 384 until now. 9:19 So now, send instructions 385 to gather 386 your livestock and all your possessions in the fields to a safe place. Every person 387 or animal caught 388 in the field and not brought into the house – the hail will come down on them, and they will die!”’”
9:20 Those 389 of Pharaoh’s servants who feared the word of the Lord hurried to bring their 390 servants and livestock into the houses, 9:21 but those 391 who did not take 392 the word of the Lord seriously left their servants and their cattle 393 in the field.
9:22 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sky 394 that there may be 395 hail in all the land of Egypt, on people and on animals, 396 and on everything that grows 397 in the field in the land of Egypt.” 9:23 When Moses extended 398 his staff toward the sky, the Lord 399 sent thunder 400 and hail, and fire fell to the earth; 401 so the Lord caused hail to rain down on the land of Egypt. 9:24 Hail fell 402 and fire mingled 403 with the hail; the hail was so severe 404 that there had not been any like it 405 in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation. 9:25 The hail struck everything in the open fields, both 406 people and animals, throughout all the land of Egypt. The hail struck everything that grows 407 in the field, and it broke all the trees of the field to pieces. 9:26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived, was there no hail.
9:27 So Pharaoh sent and summoned Moses and Aaron and said to them, “I have sinned this time! 408 The Lord is righteous, and I and my people are guilty. 409 9:28 Pray to the Lord, for the mighty 410 thunderings and hail are too much! 411 I will release you and you will stay no longer.” 412
9:29 Moses said to him, “When I leave the city 413 I will spread my hands to the Lord, the thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth belongs to the Lord. 414 9:30 But as for you 415 and your servants, I know that you do not yet fear 416 the Lord God.”
9:31 (Now the 417 flax and the barley were struck 418 by the hail, 419 for the barley had ripened 420 and the flax 421 was in bud. 9:32 But the wheat and the spelt 422 were not struck, for they are later crops.) 423
9:33 So Moses left Pharaoh, went out of the city, and spread out his hands to the Lord, and the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain stopped pouring on the earth. 9:34 When Pharaoh saw 424 that the rain and hail and thunder ceased, he sinned again: 425 both he and his servants hardened 426 their hearts. 9:35 So Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 427 and he did not release the Israelites, as the Lord had predicted through Moses. 10:1
The Eighth Blow: Locusts 428
The Lord said 429 to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, in order to display 430 these signs of mine before him, 431 10:2 and in order that in the hearing of your son and your grandson you may tell 432 how I made fools 433 of the Egyptians 434 and about 435 my signs that I displayed 436 among them, so that you may know 437 that I am the Lord.”
10:3 So Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh and told him, “Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: ‘How long do you refuse 438 to humble yourself before me? 439 Release my people so that they may serve me! 10:4 But if you refuse to release my people, I am going to bring 440 locusts 441 into your territory 442 tomorrow. 10:5 They will cover 443 the surface 444 of the earth, so that you 445 will be unable to see the ground. They will eat the remainder of what escaped 446 – what is left over 447 for you – from the hail, and they will eat every tree that grows for you from the field. 10:6 They will fill your houses, the houses of your servants, and all the houses of Egypt, such as 448 neither 449 your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen since they have been 450 in the land until this day!’” Then Moses 451 turned and went out from Pharaoh.
10:7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long 452 will this man be a menace 453 to us? Release the people so that they may serve the Lord their God. Do you not know 454 that Egypt is destroyed?”
10:8 So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve the Lord your God. Exactly who is going with you?” 455 10:9 Moses said, “We will go with our young and our old, with our sons and our daughters, and with our sheep and our cattle we will go, because we are to hold 456 a pilgrim feast for the Lord.”
10:10 He said to them, “The Lord will need to be with you 457 if I release you and your dependents! 458 Watch out! 459 Trouble is right in front of you! 460 10:11 No! 461 Go, you men 462 only, and serve the Lord, for that 463 is what you want.” 464 Then Moses and Aaron 465 were driven 466 out of Pharaoh’s presence.
10:12 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand over the land of Egypt for 467 the locusts, that they may come up over the land of Egypt and eat everything that grows 468 in the ground, everything that the hail has left.” 10:13 So Moses extended his staff over the land of Egypt, and then the Lord 469 brought 470 an east wind on the land all that day and all night. 471 The morning came, 472 and the east wind had brought up 473 the locusts! 10:14 The locusts went up over all the land of Egypt and settled down in all the territory 474 of Egypt. It was very severe; 475 there had been no locusts like them before, nor will there be such ever again. 476 10:15 They covered 477 the surface 478 of all the ground, so that the ground became dark with them, 479 and they ate all the vegetation of the ground and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Nothing green remained on the trees or on anything that grew in the fields throughout the whole land of Egypt. 10:16 480
Then Pharaoh quickly 481 summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “I have sinned 482 against the Lord your God and against you! 10:17 So now, forgive my sin this time only, and pray to the Lord your God that he would only 483 take this death 484 away from me.” 10:18 Moses 485 went out 486 from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 10:19 and the Lord turned a very strong west wind, 487 and it picked up the locusts and blew them into the Red Sea. 488 Not one locust remained in all the territory of Egypt. 10:20 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites. 10:21
The Ninth Blow: Darkness 489
The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward heaven 490 so that there may be 491 darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness so thick it can be felt.” 492
10:22 So Moses extended his hand toward heaven, and there was absolute darkness 493 throughout the land of Egypt for three days. 494 10:23 No one 495 could see 496 another person, and no one could rise from his place for three days. But the Israelites had light in the places where they lived.
10:24 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and said, “Go, serve the Lord – only your flocks and herds will be detained. Even your families 497 may go with you.”
10:25 But Moses said, “Will you also 498 provide us 499 with sacrifices and burnt offerings that we may present them 500 to the Lord our God? 10:26 Our livestock must 501 also go with us! Not a hoof is to be left behind! For we must take 502 these animals 503 to serve the Lord our God. Until we arrive there, we do not know what we must use to serve the Lord.” 504
10:27 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he was not willing to release them. 10:28 Pharaoh said to him, “Go from me! 505 Watch out for yourself! Do not appear before me again, 506 for when 507 you see my face you will die!” 10:29 Moses said, “As you wish! 508 I will not see your face again.” 509 11:1
The Tenth Blow: Death 510
The Lord said to Moses, “I will bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt; after that he will release you from this place. When he releases you, 511 he will drive you out completely 512 from this place. 11:2 Instruct 513 the people that each man and each woman is to request 514 from his or her neighbor 515 items of silver and gold.” 516
11:3 (Now the Lord granted the people favor with 517 the Egyptians. Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, respected by Pharaoh’s servants and by the Egyptian people.) 518
11:4 Moses said, “Thus says the Lord: ‘About midnight 519 I will go throughout Egypt, 520 11:5 and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh 521 who sits on his throne, to the firstborn son of the slave girl who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 11:6 There will be a great cry throughout the whole land of Egypt, such as there has never been, 522 nor ever will be again. 523 11:7 But against any of the Israelites not even a dog will bark 524 against either people or animals, 525 so that you may know that the Lord distinguishes 526 between Egypt and Israel.’ 11:8 All these your servants will come down to me and bow down 527 to me, saying, ‘Go, you and all the people who follow 528 you,’ and after that I will go out.” Then Moses 529 went out from Pharaoh in great anger.
11:9 The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not listen to you, so that my wonders 530 may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”
11:10 So Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, but the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites from his land. 12:1
The Institution of the Passover 531
The Lord said 532 to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 533 12:2 “This month is to be your beginning of months; it will be your first month of the year. 534 12:3 Tell the whole community of Israel, ‘In the tenth day of this month they each 535 must take a lamb 536 for themselves according to their families 537 – a lamb for each household. 538 12:4 If any household is too small 539 for a lamb, 540 the man 541 and his next-door neighbor 542 are to take 543 a lamb according to the number of people – you will make your count for the lamb according to how much each one can eat. 544 12:5 Your lamb must be 545 perfect, 546 a male, one year old; 547 you may take 548 it from the sheep or from the goats. 12:6 You must care for it 549 until the fourteenth day of this month, and then the whole community 550 of Israel will kill it around sundown. 551 12:7 They will take some of the blood and put it on the two side posts and top of the doorframe of the houses where they will eat it. 12:8 They will eat the meat the same night; 552 they will eat it roasted over the fire with bread made without yeast 553 and with bitter herbs. 12:9 Do not eat it raw 554 or boiled in water, but roast it over the fire with its head, its legs, and its entrails. 12:10 You must leave nothing until morning, but you must burn with fire whatever remains of it until morning. 12:11 This is how you are to eat it – dressed to travel, 555 your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. You are to eat it in haste. It is the Lord’s Passover. 556
12:12 I will pass through 557 the land of Egypt in the same 558 night, and I will attack 559 all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both of humans and of animals, 560 and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment. 561 I am the Lord. 12:13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, so that when I see 562 the blood I will pass over you, 563 and this plague 564 will not fall on you to destroy you 565 when I attack 566 the land of Egypt. 567
12:14 This day will become 568 a memorial 569 for you, and you will celebrate it as a festival 570 to the Lord – you will celebrate it perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 571 12:15 For seven days 572 you must eat 573 bread made without yeast. 574 Surely 575 on the first day you must put away yeast from your houses because anyone who eats bread made with yeast 576 from the first day to the seventh day will be cut off 577 from Israel.
12:16 On the first day there will be a holy convocation, 578 and on the seventh day there will be a holy convocation for you. You must do no work of any kind 579 on them, only what every person will eat – that alone may be prepared for you. 12:17 So you will keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because on this very 580 day I brought your regiments 581 out from the land of Egypt, and so you must keep this day perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 582 12:18 In the first month, 583 from the fourteenth day of the month, in the evening, you will eat bread made without yeast until the twenty-first day of the month in the evening. 12:19 For seven days 584 yeast must not be found in your houses, for whoever eats what is made with yeast – that person 585 will be cut off from the community of Israel, whether a foreigner 586 or one born in the land. 12:20 You will not eat anything made with yeast; in all the places where you live you must eat bread made without yeast.’”
12:21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel, and told them, “Go and select 587 for yourselves a lamb or young goat 588 for your families, and kill the Passover animals. 589 12:22 Take a branch of hyssop, 590 dip it in the blood that is in the basin, 591 and apply to the top of the doorframe and the two side posts some of the blood that is in the basin. Not one of you is to go out 592 the door of his house until morning. 12:23 For the Lord will pass through to strike Egypt, and when he sees 593 the blood on the top of the doorframe and the two side posts, then the Lord will pass over the door, and he will not permit the destroyer 594 to enter your houses to strike you. 595 12:24 You must observe this event as an ordinance for you and for your children forever. 12:25 When you enter the land that the Lord will give to you, just as he said, you must observe 596 this ceremony. 12:26 When your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ 597 – 12:27 then you will say, ‘It is the sacrifice 598 of the Lord’s Passover, when he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when he struck 599 Egypt and delivered our households.’” The people bowed down low 600 to the ground, 12:28 and the Israelites went away and did exactly as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron. 601 12:29
The Deliverance from Egypt 602
It happened 603 at midnight – the Lord attacked all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the prison, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 12:30 Pharaoh got up 604 in the night, 605 along with all his servants and all Egypt, and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was no house 606 in which there was not someone dead. 12:31 Pharaoh 607 summoned Moses and Aaron in the night and said, “Get up, get out 608 from among my people, both you and the Israelites! Go, serve the Lord as you have requested! 609 12:32 Also, take your flocks and your herds, just as you have requested, and leave. But bless me also.” 610
12:33 The Egyptians were urging 611 the people on, in order to send them out of the land quickly, 612 for they were saying, “We are all dead!” 12:34 So the people took their dough before the yeast was added, 613 with their kneading troughs bound up in their clothing on their shoulders. 12:35 Now the Israelites had done 614 as Moses told them – they had requested from the Egyptians 615 silver and gold items and clothing. 12:36 The Lord 616 gave the people favor 617 in the sight of the Egyptians, and they gave them whatever they wanted, 618 and so they plundered Egypt. 619
12:37 The Israelites journeyed 620 from Rameses 621 to Sukkoth. There were about 600,000 men 622 on foot, plus their dependants. 623 12:38 A mixed multitude 624 also went up with them, and flocks and herds – a very large number of cattle. 625 12:39 They baked cakes of bread without yeast using the dough they had brought from Egypt, for it was made without yeast – because they were thrust out 626 of Egypt and were not able to delay, they 627 could not prepare 628 food for themselves either.
12:40 Now the length of time the Israelites lived in Egypt was 430 years. 629 12:41 At the end of the 430 years, on the very day, all the regiments 630 of the Lord went out of the land of Egypt. 12:42 It was a night of vigil for the Lord to bring them out from the land of Egypt, 631 and so 632 on this night all Israel is to keep the vigil 633 to the Lord for generations to come. 12:43
Participation in the Passover 634
The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover. No foreigner may 635 share in eating it. 636 12:44 But everyone’s servant who is bought for money, after you have circumcised him, may eat it. 12:45 A foreigner and a hired worker must not eat it. 12:46 It must be eaten in one house; you must not bring any of the meat outside the house, and you must not break a bone of it. 12:47 The whole community of Israel must observe it.
12:48 “When a foreigner lives 637 with you and wants to observe the Passover to the Lord, all his males must be circumcised, 638 and then he may approach and observe it, and he will be like one who is born in the land 639 – but no uncircumcised person may eat of it. 12:49 The same law will apply 640 to the person who is native-born and to the foreigner who lives among you.”
12:50 So all the Israelites did exactly as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron. 641 12:51 And on this very day the Lord brought the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments. 13:1
The Law of the Firstborn 642
The Lord spoke 643 to Moses: 13:2 “Set apart 644 to me every firstborn male – the first offspring of every womb 645 among the Israelites, whether human or animal; it is mine.” 646
13:3 Moses said to the people, “Remember 647 this day on which you came out from Egypt, from the place where you were enslaved, 648 for the Lord brought you out of there 649 with a mighty hand – and no bread made with yeast may be eaten. 650 13:4 On this day, 651 in the month of Abib, 652 you are going out. 653
13:5 When 654 the Lord brings you to the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which he swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, 655 then you will keep 656 this ceremony 657 in this month. 13:6 For seven days 658 you must eat 659 bread made without yeast, and on the seventh day there is to be 660 a festival to the Lord. 13:7 Bread made without yeast must be eaten 661 for seven days; 662 no bread made with yeast shall be seen 663 among you, and you must have no yeast among you within any of your borders.
13:8 You are to tell your son 664 on that day, 665 ‘It is 666 because of what 667 the Lord did for me when I came out of Egypt.’ 13:9 668 It 669 will be a sign 670 for you on your hand and a memorial 671 on your forehead, 672 so that the law of the Lord may be 673 in your mouth, 674 for 675 with a mighty hand the Lord brought you out of Egypt. 13:10 So you must keep 676 this ordinance at its appointed time from year to year. 677
13:11 When the Lord brings you 678 into the land of the Canaanites, 679 as he swore to you and to your fathers, and gives it 680 to you, 13:12 then you must give over 681 to the Lord the first offspring of every womb. 682 Every firstling 683 of a beast that you have 684 – the males will be the Lord’s. 685 13:13 Every firstling 686 of a donkey you must redeem 687 with a lamb, and if you do not redeem it, then you must break its neck. 688 Every firstborn of 689 your sons you must redeem. 13:14 690
In the future, 691 when your son asks you 692 ‘What is this?’ 693 you are to tell him, ‘With a mighty hand 694 the Lord brought us out from Egypt, from the land of slavery. 695 13:15 When Pharaoh stubbornly refused 696 to release us, the Lord killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of people to the firstborn of animals. 697 That is why I am sacrificing 698 to the Lord the first male offspring of every womb, but all my firstborn sons I redeem.’ 13:16 It will be for a sign on your hand and for frontlets 699 on your forehead, for with a mighty hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt.” 700 13:17
The Leading of God 701
When Pharaoh released 702 the people, God did not lead them 703 by the way to the land 704 of the Philistines, 705 although 706 that was nearby, for God said, 707 “Lest 708 the people change their minds 709 and return to Egypt when they experience 710 war.” 13:18 So God brought the people around by the way of the desert to the Red Sea, 711 and the Israelites went up from the land of Egypt prepared for battle. 712
13:19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for Joseph 713 had made the Israelites solemnly swear, 714 “God will surely attend 715 to you, and you will carry 716 my bones up from this place with you.”
13:20 They journeyed from Sukkoth and camped in Etham, on the edge of the desert. 13:21 Now the Lord was going before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them in the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, 717 so that they could 718 travel day or night. 719 13:22 He did not remove the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night from before the people. 720 14:1
The Victory at the Red Sea 721
The Lord spoke to Moses: 14:2 “Tell the Israelites that they must turn and camp 722 before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea; you are to camp by the sea before Baal Zephon opposite it. 723 14:3 Pharaoh will think 724 regarding the Israelites, ‘They are wandering around confused 725 in the land – the desert has closed in on them.’ 726 14:4 I will harden 727 Pharaoh’s heart, and he will chase after them. I will gain honor 728 because of Pharaoh and because of all his army, and the Egyptians will know 729 that I am the Lord.” So this is what they did. 730
14:5 When it was reported 731 to the king of Egypt that the people had fled, 732 the heart of Pharaoh and his servants was turned against the people, and the king and his servants said, 733 “What in the world have we done? 734 For we have released the people of Israel 735 from serving us!” 14:6 Then he prepared 736 his chariots and took his army 737 with him. 14:7 He took six hundred select 738 chariots, and all the rest of the chariots of Egypt, 739 and officers 740 on all of them.
14:8 But the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he chased after the Israelites. Now the Israelites were going out defiantly. 741 14:9 The Egyptians chased after them, and all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh and his horsemen and his army overtook them camping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-Zephon. 14:10 When 742 Pharaoh got closer, 743 the Israelites looked up, 744 and there were the Egyptians marching after them, 745 and they were terrified. 746 The Israelites cried out to the Lord, 747 14:11 and they said to Moses, “Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the desert? 748 What in the world 749 have you done to us by bringing 750 us out of Egypt? 14:12 Isn’t this what we told you 751 in Egypt, ‘Leave us alone so that we can serve the Egyptians, 752 because it is better for us to serve 753 the Egyptians than to die in the desert!’” 754
14:13 Moses said to the people, “Do not fear! 755 Stand firm 756 and see 757 the salvation 758 of the Lord that he will provide 759 for you today; for the Egyptians that you see today you will never, ever see again. 760 14:14 The Lord 761 will fight for you, and you can be still.” 762
14:15 The Lord said to Moses, “Why do you cry out to me? Tell the Israelites to move on. 763 14:16 And as for you, 764 lift up your staff and extend your hand toward the sea and divide it, so that 765 the Israelites may go through the middle of the sea on dry ground. 14:17 And as for me, I am going to harden 766 the hearts of the Egyptians so that 767 they will come after them, that I may be honored 768 because 769 of Pharaoh and his army and his chariots and his horsemen. 14:18 And the Egyptians will know 770 that I am the Lord when I have gained my honor 771 because of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.”
14:19 The angel of God, who was going before the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them, and the pillar 772 of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them. 14:20 It came between the Egyptian camp and the Israelite camp; it was a dark cloud 773 and it lit up the night so that one camp did not come near the other 774 the whole night. 775 14:21 Moses stretched out his hand toward the sea, and the Lord drove the sea apart 776 by a strong east wind all that night, and he made the sea into dry land, and the water was divided. 14:22 So the Israelites went through the middle of the sea on dry ground, the water forming a wall 777 for them on their right and on their left.
14:23 The Egyptians chased them and followed them into the middle of the sea – all the horses of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen. 14:24 In the morning watch 778 the Lord looked down 779 on the Egyptian army 780 through the pillar of fire and cloud, and he threw the Egyptian army 781 into a panic. 782 14:25 He jammed 783 the wheels of their chariots so that they had difficulty driving, 784 and the Egyptians said, “Let’s flee 785 from Israel, for the Lord fights 786 for them against Egypt!”
14:26 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sea, so that the waters may flow 787 back on the Egyptians, on their chariots, and on their horsemen!” 14:27 So Moses extended his hand toward the sea, and the sea returned to its normal state 788 when the sun began to rise. 789 Now the Egyptians were fleeing 790 before it, but the Lord overthrew 791 the Egyptians in the middle of the sea. 14:28 The water returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen and all the army of Pharaoh that was coming after the Israelites into the sea 792 – not so much as one of them survived! 793 14:29 But the Israelites walked on dry ground in the middle of the sea, the water forming a wall for them on their right and on their left. 14:30 So the Lord saved 794 Israel on that day from the power 795 of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead 796 on the shore of the sea. 14:31 When Israel saw 797 the great power 798 that the Lord had exercised 799 over the Egyptians, they 800 feared the Lord, and they believed in 801 the Lord and in his servant Moses. 802