Bible: Exodus 4-14


The Source of Sufficiency


Moses answered again, 2  “And if 3  they do not believe me or pay attention to me, 4  but say, ‘The Lord has not appeared to you’? 4:2 The Lord said to him, “What is that in your hand?” He said, “A staff.” 5  4:3 The Lord 6  said, “Throw it to the ground.” So he threw it to the ground, and it became a snake, 7  and Moses ran from it. 4:4 But the Lord said to Moses, “Put out your hand and grab it by the tail– so he put out his hand and caught it, and it became a staff in his hand 8  4:5 that they may believe that the Lord, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to you.”

4:6 The Lord also said to him, “Put your hand into your robe.” 9  So he put his hand into his robe, and when he brought it out – there was his hand, 10  leprous like snow! 11  4:7 He said, “Put your hand back into your robe.” So he put his hand back into his robe, and when he brought it out from his robe – there it was, 12  restored 13  like the rest of his skin! 14  4:8 If 15  they do not believe you or pay attention to 16  the former sign, then they may 17  believe the latter sign. 18  4:9 And if 19  they do not believe even these two signs or listen to you, 20  then take 21  some water from the Nile and pour it out on the dry ground. The water you take out of the Nile will become blood on the dry ground.” 22 

4:10 Then Moses said to the Lord, 23  “O 24  my Lord, 25  I am not an eloquent man, 26  neither in the past 27  nor since you have spoken to your servant, for I am slow of speech and slow of tongue.” 28 

4:11 The Lord said to him, “Who gave 29  a mouth to man, or who makes a person mute or deaf or seeing or blind? Is it not I, the Lord? 30  4:12 So now go, and I will be with your mouth 31  and will teach you 32  what you must say.” 33 

4:13 But Moses said, 34 O 35  my Lord, please send anyone else whom you wish to send! 36 

4:14 Then the Lord became angry with 37  Moses, and he said, “What about 38  your brother Aaron the Levite? 39  I know that he can speak very well. 40  Moreover, he is coming 41  to meet you, and when he sees you he will be glad in his heart. 42 

4:15So you are to speak to him and put the words in his mouth. And as for me, I will be with your mouth 43  and with his mouth, 44  and I will teach you both 45  what you must do. 46  4:16 He 47  will speak for you to the people, and it will be as if 48  he 49  were your mouth 50  and as if you were his God. 51  4:17 You will also take in your hand this staff, with which you will do the signs.” 52 


The Return of Moses


So Moses went back 54  to his father-in-law Jethro and said to him, “Let me go, so that I may return 55  to my relatives 56  in Egypt and see 57  if they are still alive.” Jethro said to Moses, “Go in peace.” 4:19 The Lord said to Moses in Midian, “Go back 58  to Egypt, because all the men who were seeking your life are dead.” 59  4:20 Then Moses took 60  his wife and sons 61  and put them on a donkey and headed back 62  to the land of Egypt, and Moses took the staff of God in his hand. 4:21 The Lord said 63  to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, 64  see that you 65  do before Pharaoh all the wonders I have put under your control. 66  But I will harden 67  his heart 68  and 69  he will not let the people go. 4:22 You must say 70  to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says 71  the Lord, “Israel is my son, my firstborn, 72  4:23 and I said to you, ‘Let my son go that he may serve 73  me,’ but since you have refused to let him go, 74  I will surely kill 75  your son, your firstborn!”’

4:24 Now on the way, at a place where they stopped for the night, 76  the Lord met Moses and sought to kill him. 77  4:25 But Zipporah took a flint knife, cut off the foreskin of her son and touched it to Moses’ feet, 78  and said, “Surely you are a bridegroom of blood 79  to me.” 4:26 So the Lord 80  let him alone. (At that time 81  she said, “A bridegroom of blood,” referring to 82  the circumcision.)

4:27 The Lord said 83  to Aaron, “Go to the wilderness to meet Moses. So he went and met him at the mountain of God 84  and greeted him with a kiss. 85  4:28 Moses told Aaron all the words of the Lord who had 86  sent him and all the signs that he had commanded him. 4:29 Then Moses and Aaron went and brought together all the Israelite elders. 87  4:30 Aaron spoke 88  all the words that the Lord had spoken to Moses and did the signs in the sight of the people, 4:31 and the people believed. When they heard 89  that the Lord had attended to 90  the Israelites and that he had seen their affliction, they bowed down close to the ground. 91 


Opposition to the Plan of God


Afterward Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said, “Thus says the Lord, 93  the God of Israel, ‘Release 94  my people so that they may hold a pilgrim feast 95  to me in the desert.’ 5:2 But Pharaoh said, “Who is the Lord 96  that 97  I should obey him 98  by releasing 99  Israel? I do not know the Lord, 100  and I will not release Israel! 5:3 And they said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Let us go a three-day journey 101  into the desert so that we may sacrifice 102  to the Lord our God, so that he does not strike us with plague or the sword.” 103  5:4 The king of Egypt said to them, “Moses and Aaron, why do you cause the people to refrain from their work? 104  Return to your labor! 5:5 Pharaoh was thinking, 105 The people of the land are now many, and you are giving them rest from their labor.”

5:6 That same day Pharaoh commanded 106  the slave masters and foremen 107  who were 108  over the people: 109  5:7 You must no longer 110  give straw to the people for making bricks 111  as before. 112  Let them go 113  and collect straw for themselves. 5:8 But you must require 114  of them the same quota of bricks that they were making before. 115  Do not reduce it, for they are slackers. 116  That is why they are crying, ‘Let us go sacrifice to our God.’ 5:9 Make the work harder 117  for the men so they will keep at it 118  and pay no attention to lying words! 119 

5:10 So the slave masters of the people and their foremen went to the Israelites and said, 120 Thus says Pharaoh: ‘I am not giving 121  you straw. 5:11 You 122  go get straw for yourselves wherever you can 123  find it, because there will be no reduction at all in your workload.’ 5:12 So the people spread out 124  through all the land of Egypt to collect stubble for straw. 5:13 The slave masters were pressuring 125  them, saying, “Complete 126  your work for each day, just like when there was straw! 5:14 The Israelite foremen whom Pharaoh’s slave masters had set over them were beaten and were asked, 127 Why did you not complete your requirement for brickmaking as in the past – both yesterday and today? 128 

5:15 129 

The Israelite foremen went and cried out to Pharaoh, “Why are you treating 130  your servants this way? 5:16 No straw is given to your servants, but we are told, 131 Make bricks!’ Your servants are even 132  being beaten, but the fault 133  is with your people.”

5:17 But Pharaoh replied, 134 You are slackers! Slackers! 135  That is why you are saying, ‘Let us go sacrifice to the Lord.’ 5:18 So now, get back to work! 136  You will not be given straw, but you must still produce 137  your quota 138  of bricks! 5:19 The Israelite foremen saw 139  that they 140  were in trouble when they were told, 141 You must not reduce the daily quota of your bricks.”

5:20 When they went out from Pharaoh, they encountered Moses and Aaron standing there to meet them, 142  5:21 and they said to them, “May the Lord look on you and judge, 143  because you have made us stink 144  in the opinion of 145  Pharaoh and his servants, 146  so that you have given them an excuse to kill us! 147 


The Assurance of Deliverance


Moses returned 149  to the Lord, and said, “Lord, 150  why have you caused trouble for this people? 151  Why did you ever 152  send me? 5:23 From the time I went to speak to Pharaoh in your name, he has caused trouble 153  for this people, and you have certainly not rescued 154  them! 155 

6:1 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Now you will see what I will do to Pharaoh, 156  for compelled by my strong hand 157  he will release them, and by my strong hand he will drive them out of his land.” 158 

6:2 God spoke 159  to Moses and said to him, “I am the Lord. 160  6:3 I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as 161  God Almighty, 162  but by 163  my name ‘the Lord 164  I was not known to them. 165  6:4 I also established my covenant with them 166  to give them the land of Canaan, where they were living as resident foreigners. 167  6:5 I 168  have also heard 169  the groaning of the Israelites, whom the Egyptians are enslaving, 170  and I have remembered my covenant. 171  6:6 Therefore, tell the Israelites, ‘I am the Lord. I will bring you out 172  from your enslavement to 173  the Egyptians, I will rescue you from the hard labor they impose, 174  and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments. 6:7 I will take you to myself for a people, and I will be your God. 175  Then you will know that I am the Lord your God, who brought you out from your enslavement to 176  the Egyptians. 6:8 I will bring you to the land I swore to give 177  to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob – and I will give it to you 178  as a possession. I am the Lord!’

6:9 179 

Moses told this 180  to the Israelites, but they did not listen to him 181  because of their discouragement 182  and hard labor. 6:10 Then the Lord said to Moses, 6:11 Go, tell Pharaoh king of Egypt that he must release 183  the Israelites from his land.” 6:12 But Moses replied to 184  the Lord, “If the Israelites did not listen to me, then 185  how will Pharaoh listen to me, since 186  I speak with difficulty? 187 

6:13 The Lord spoke 188  to Moses and Aaron and gave them a charge 189  for the Israelites and Pharaoh king of Egypt to bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt.


The Ancestry of the Deliverer


These are the heads of their fathershouseholds: 191 

The sons 192  of Reuben, the firstborn son of Israel, were Hanoch and Pallu, Hezron and Carmi. These were the clans 193  of Reuben.

6:15 The sons of Simeon were Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jakin, Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman. These were the clans of Simeon.

6:16 Now these are the names of the sons of Levi, according to their records: 194  Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. (The length of Levi’s life was 137 years.)

6:17 The sons of Gershon, by their families, were Libni and Shimei.

6:18 The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. (The length of Kohath’s life was 133 years.)

6:19 The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi. These were the clans of Levi, according to their records.

6:20 Amram married 195  his father’s sister Jochebed, and she bore him Aaron and Moses. (The length of Amram’s life was 137 years.)

6:21 The sons of Izhar were Korah, Nepheg, and Zikri.

6:22 The sons of Uzziel were Mishael, Elzaphan, and Sithri.

6:23 Aaron married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab and sister of Nahshon, and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.

6:24 The sons of Korah were Assir, Elkanah, and Abiasaph. These were the Korahite clans.

6:25 Now Eleazar son of Aaron married one of the daughters of Putiel and she bore him Phinehas.

These are the heads of the fathershouseholds 196  of Levi according to their clans.

6:26 It was the same Aaron and Moses to whom the Lord said, “Bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments.” 197  6:27 They were the men who were speaking to Pharaoh king of Egypt, in order to bring the Israelites out of Egypt. It was the same Moses and Aaron.


The Authentication of the Word


When 199  the Lord spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt, 6:29 he said to him, 200 I am the Lord. Tell 201  Pharaoh king of Egypt all that 202  I am telling 203  you.” 6:30 But Moses said before the Lord, “Since I speak with difficulty, 204  why should Pharaoh listen to me?

7:1 So the Lord said to Moses, “See, I have made you like God 205  to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet. 206  7:2 You are to speak 207  everything I command you, 208  and your brother Aaron is to tell Pharaoh that he must release 209  the Israelites from his land. 7:3 But I will harden 210  Pharaoh’s heart, and although I will multiply 211  my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt, 7:4 Pharaoh will not listen to you. 212  I will reach into 213  Egypt and bring out my regiments, 214  my people the Israelites, from the land of Egypt with great acts of judgment. 7:5 Then 215  the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord, when I extend my hand 216  over Egypt and bring the Israelites out from among them.

7:6 And Moses and Aaron did so; they did just as the Lord commanded them. 7:7 Now Moses was eighty years old and Aaron was eighty-three years old when they spoke to Pharaoh.

7:8 The Lord said 217  to Moses and Aaron, 218  7:9 When Pharaoh says to you, ‘Do 219  a miracle,’ and you say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down 220  before Pharaoh,’ it will become 221  a snake.” 7:10 When 222  Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh, they did so, just as the Lord had commanded them – Aaron threw 223  down his staff before Pharaoh and his servants and it became a snake. 224  7:11 Then Pharaoh also summoned wise men and sorcerers, 225  and the magicians 226  of Egypt by their secret arts 227  did the same thing. 7:12 Each man 228  threw down his staff, and the staffs became snakes. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs. 7:13 Yet Pharaoh’s heart became hard, 229  and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted.


The First Blow: Water to Blood


The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is hard; 231  he refuses to release 232  the people. 7:15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning when 233  he goes out to the water. Position yourself 234  to meet him by the edge of the Nile, 235  and take 236  in your hand the staff 237  that was turned into a snake. 7:16 Tell him, ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to you to say, 238 Release my people, that they may serve me 239  in the desert!” But until now 240  you have not listened. 241  7:17 Thus says the Lord: “By this you will know that I am the Lord: I am going to strike 242  the water of the Nile with the staff that is in my hand, and it will be turned into blood. 243  7:18 Fish 244  in the Nile will die, the Nile will stink, and the Egyptians will be unable 245  to drink water from the Nile.”’ 7:19 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your staff and stretch out your hand over Egypt’s waters – over their rivers, over their canals, 246  over their ponds, and over all their reservoirs 247 so that it becomes 248  blood.’ There will be blood everywhere in 249  the land of Egypt, even in wooden and stone containers.” 7:20 Moses and Aaron did so, 250  just as the Lord had commanded. Moses raised 251  the staff 252  and struck the water that was in the Nile right before the eyes 253  of Pharaoh and his servants, 254  and all the water that was in the Nile was turned to blood. 255  7:21 When the fish 256  that were in the Nile died, the Nile began 257  to stink, so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood 258  everywhere in the land of Egypt! 7:22 But the magicians of Egypt did the same 259  by their secret arts, and so 260  Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 261  and he refused to listen to Moses and Aaron 262 just as the Lord had predicted. 7:23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house. He did not pay any attention to this. 263  7:24 All the Egyptians dug around the Nile for water to drink, 264  because they could not drink the water of the Nile.


The Second Blow: Frogs


Seven full days passed 266  after the Lord struck 267  the Nile. 8:1 268  Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord: “Release my people in order that they may serve me! 8:2 But if you refuse to release them, then I am going to plague 269  all your territory with frogs. 270  8:3 The Nile will swarm 271  with frogs, and they will come up and go into your house, in your bedroom, and on your bed, and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens and your kneading troughs. 272  8:4 Frogs 273  will come up against you, your people, and all your servants.”’ 274 

8:5 The Lord spoke to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your hand with your staff 275  over the rivers, over the canals, and over the ponds, and bring the frogs up over the land of Egypt.’ 8:6 So Aaron extended his hand over the waters of Egypt, and frogs 276  came up and covered the land of Egypt.

8:7 The magicians did the same 277  with their secret arts and brought up frogs on the land of Egypt too. 278 

8:8 Then Pharaoh summoned 279  Moses and Aaron and said, “Pray 280  to the Lord that he may take the frogs away 281  from me and my people, and I will release 282  the people that they may sacrifice 283  to the Lord.” 8:9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “You may have the honor over me 284  – when shall I pray for you, your servants, and your people, for the frogs to be removed 285  from you and your houses, so that 286  they will be left 287  only in the Nile?” 8:10 He said, “Tomorrow.” And Moses said, 288 It will be 289  as you say, 290  so that you may know that there is no one like the Lord our God. 8:11 The frogs will depart from you, your houses, your servants, and your people; they will be left only in the Nile.”

8:12 Then Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried 291  to the Lord because of 292  the frogs that he had brought on 293  Pharaoh. 8:13 The Lord did as Moses asked 294  – the 295  frogs died out of the houses, the villages, and the fields. 8:14 The Egyptians 296  piled them in countless heaps, 297  and the land stank. 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was relief, 298  he hardened 299  his heart and did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 300 


The Third Blow: Gnats


The Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your staff and strike the dust of the ground, and it will become 302  gnats 303  throughout all the land of Egypt.’ 8:17 They did so; Aaron extended his hand with his staff, he struck the dust of the ground, and it became gnats on people 304  and on animals. All the dust of the ground became gnats throughout all the land of Egypt. 8:18 When 305  the magicians attempted 306  to bring forth gnats by their secret arts, they could not. So there were gnats on people and on animals. 8:19 The magicians said 307  to Pharaoh, “It is the finger 308  of God!” But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 309  and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted.


The Fourth Blow: Flies


The Lord 311  said to Moses, “Get up early in the morning and position yourself before Pharaoh as he goes out to the water, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, “Release my people that they may serve me! 8:21 If you do not release 312  my people, then I am going to send 313  swarms of flies 314  on you and on your servants and on your people and in your houses. The houses of the Egyptians will be full of flies, and even the ground they stand on. 315  8:22 But on that day I will mark off 316  the land of Goshen, where my people are staying, 317  so that no swarms of flies will be there, that you may know that I am the Lord in the midst of this land. 318  8:23 I will put a division 319  between my people and your people. This sign will take place 320  tomorrow.”’ 8:24 The Lord did so; a 321  thick 322  swarm of flies came into 323  Pharaoh’s house and into the houses 324  of his servants, and throughout the whole land of Egypt the land was ruined 325  because of the swarms of flies.

8:25 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God within the land.” 326  8:26 But Moses said, “That would not be the right thing to do, 327  for the sacrifices we make 328  to the Lord our God would be an abomination 329  to the Egyptians. 330  If we make sacrifices that are an abomination to the Egyptians right before their eyes, 331  will they not stone us? 332  8:27 We must go 333  on a three-day journey 334  into the desert and sacrifice 335  to the Lord our God, just as he is telling us.” 336 

8:28 Pharaoh said, “I will release you 337  so that you may sacrifice 338  to the Lord your God in the desert. Only you must not go very far. 339  Do 340  pray for me.”

8:29 Moses said, “I am going to go out 341  from you and pray to the Lord, and the swarms of flies will go away from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people tomorrow. Only do not let Pharaoh deal falsely again 342  by not releasing 343  the people to sacrifice to the Lord.” 8:30 So Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 8:31 and the Lord did as Moses asked 344  – he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people. Not one remained! 8:32 But Pharaoh hardened 345  his heart this time also and did not release the people.


The Fifth Blow: Disease


Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, “Release my people that they may serve me! 9:2 For if you refuse to release them 347  and continue holding them, 348  9:3 then the hand of the Lord will surely bring 349  a very terrible plague 350  on your livestock in the field, on the horses, the donkeys, the camels, 351  the herds, and the flocks. 9:4 But the Lord will distinguish 352  between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, and nothing 353  will die of all that the Israelites have.”’ 354 

9:5 The Lord set 355  an appointed time, saying, “Tomorrow the Lord will do this 356  in the land.” 9:6 And the Lord did this 357  on the next day; 358  all 359  the livestock of the Egyptians 360  died, but of the Israeliteslivestock not one died. 9:7 Pharaoh sent representatives to investigate, 361  and indeed, not even one of the livestock of Israel had died. But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 362  and he did not release the people.


The Sixth Blow: Boils


Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot 364  from a furnace, and have Moses throw it 365  into the air while Pharaoh is watching. 366  9:9 It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt and will cause boils to break out and fester 367  on both people and animals in all the land of Egypt.” 9:10 So they took soot from a furnace and stood before Pharaoh, Moses threw it into the air, and it caused festering boils to break out on both people and animals.

9:11 The magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for boils were on the magicians and on all the Egyptians. 9:12 But the Lord hardened 368  Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted to Moses.


The Seventh Blow: Hail


The Lord said 370  to Moses, “Get up early in the morning, stand 371  before Pharaoh, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: “Release my people so that they may serve me! 9:14 For this time I will send all my plagues 372  on your very self 373  and on your servants and your people, so that you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth. 9:15 For by now I could have stretched out 374  my hand and struck you and your people with plague, and you would have been destroyed 375  from the earth. 9:16 But 376  for this purpose I have caused you to stand: 377  to show you 378  my strength, and so that my name may be declared 379  in all the earth. 9:17 You are still exalting 380  yourself against my people by 381  not releasing them. 9:18 I am going to cause very severe hail to rain down 382  about this time tomorrow, such hail as has never occurred 383  in Egypt from the day it was founded 384  until now. 9:19 So now, send instructions 385  to gather 386  your livestock and all your possessions in the fields to a safe place. Every person 387  or animal caught 388  in the field and not brought into the house – the hail will come down on them, and they will die!”’

9:20 Those 389  of Pharaoh’s servants who feared the word of the Lord hurried to bring their 390  servants and livestock into the houses, 9:21 but those 391  who did not take 392  the word of the Lord seriously left their servants and their cattle 393  in the field.

9:22 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sky 394  that there may be 395  hail in all the land of Egypt, on people and on animals, 396  and on everything that grows 397  in the field in the land of Egypt.” 9:23 When Moses extended 398  his staff toward the sky, the Lord 399  sent thunder 400  and hail, and fire fell to the earth; 401  so the Lord caused hail to rain down on the land of Egypt. 9:24 Hail fell 402  and fire mingled 403  with the hail; the hail was so severe 404  that there had not been any like it 405  in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation. 9:25 The hail struck everything in the open fields, both 406  people and animals, throughout all the land of Egypt. The hail struck everything that grows 407  in the field, and it broke all the trees of the field to pieces. 9:26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived, was there no hail.

9:27 So Pharaoh sent and summoned Moses and Aaron and said to them, “I have sinned this time! 408  The Lord is righteous, and I and my people are guilty. 409  9:28 Pray to the Lord, for the mighty 410  thunderings and hail are too much! 411  I will release you and you will stay no longer.” 412 

9:29 Moses said to him, “When I leave the city 413  I will spread my hands to the Lord, the thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth belongs to the Lord. 414  9:30 But as for you 415  and your servants, I know that you do not yet fear 416  the Lord God.”

9:31 (Now the 417  flax and the barley were struck 418  by the hail, 419  for the barley had ripened 420  and the flax 421  was in bud. 9:32 But the wheat and the spelt 422  were not struck, for they are later crops.) 423 

9:33 So Moses left Pharaoh, went out of the city, and spread out his hands to the Lord, and the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain stopped pouring on the earth. 9:34 When Pharaoh saw 424  that the rain and hail and thunder ceased, he sinned again: 425  both he and his servants hardened 426  their hearts. 9:35 So Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 427  and he did not release the Israelites, as the Lord had predicted through Moses.


The Eighth Blow: Locusts


The Lord said 429  to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, in order to display 430  these signs of mine before him, 431  10:2 and in order that in the hearing of your son and your grandson you may tell 432  how I made fools 433  of the Egyptians 434  and about 435  my signs that I displayed 436  among them, so that you may know 437  that I am the Lord.”

10:3 So Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh and told him, “Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: ‘How long do you refuse 438  to humble yourself before me? 439  Release my people so that they may serve me! 10:4 But if you refuse to release my people, I am going to bring 440  locusts 441  into your territory 442  tomorrow. 10:5 They will cover 443  the surface 444  of the earth, so that you 445  will be unable to see the ground. They will eat the remainder of what escaped 446 what is left over 447  for you – from the hail, and they will eat every tree that grows for you from the field. 10:6 They will fill your houses, the houses of your servants, and all the houses of Egypt, such as 448  neither 449  your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen since they have been 450  in the land until this day!’” Then Moses 451  turned and went out from Pharaoh.

10:7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long 452  will this man be a menace 453  to us? Release the people so that they may serve the Lord their God. Do you not know 454  that Egypt is destroyed?

10:8 So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve the Lord your God. Exactly who is going with you? 455  10:9 Moses said, “We will go with our young and our old, with our sons and our daughters, and with our sheep and our cattle we will go, because we are to hold 456  a pilgrim feast for the Lord.”

10:10 He said to them, “The Lord will need to be with you 457  if I release you and your dependents! 458  Watch out! 459  Trouble is right in front of you! 460  10:11 No! 461  Go, you men 462  only, and serve the Lord, for that 463  is what you want.” 464  Then Moses and Aaron 465  were driven 466  out of Pharaoh’s presence.

10:12 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand over the land of Egypt for 467  the locusts, that they may come up over the land of Egypt and eat everything that grows 468  in the ground, everything that the hail has left.” 10:13 So Moses extended his staff over the land of Egypt, and then the Lord 469  brought 470  an east wind on the land all that day and all night. 471  The morning came, 472  and the east wind had brought up 473  the locusts! 10:14 The locusts went up over all the land of Egypt and settled down in all the territory 474  of Egypt. It was very severe; 475  there had been no locusts like them before, nor will there be such ever again. 476  10:15 They covered 477  the surface 478  of all the ground, so that the ground became dark with them, 479  and they ate all the vegetation of the ground and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Nothing green remained on the trees or on anything that grew in the fields throughout the whole land of Egypt.

10:16 480 

Then Pharaoh quickly 481  summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “I have sinned 482  against the Lord your God and against you! 10:17 So now, forgive my sin this time only, and pray to the Lord your God that he would only 483  take this death 484  away from me.” 10:18 Moses 485  went out 486  from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 10:19 and the Lord turned a very strong west wind, 487  and it picked up the locusts and blew them into the Red Sea. 488  Not one locust remained in all the territory of Egypt. 10:20 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites.


The Ninth Blow: Darkness


The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward heaven 490  so that there may be 491  darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness so thick it can be felt.” 492 

10:22 So Moses extended his hand toward heaven, and there was absolute darkness 493  throughout the land of Egypt for three days. 494  10:23 No one 495  could see 496  another person, and no one could rise from his place for three days. But the Israelites had light in the places where they lived.

10:24 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and said, “Go, serve the Lordonly your flocks and herds will be detained. Even your families 497  may go with you.”

10:25 But Moses said, “Will you also 498  provide us 499  with sacrifices and burnt offerings that we may present them 500  to the Lord our God? 10:26 Our livestock must 501  also go with us! Not a hoof is to be left behind! For we must take 502  these animals 503  to serve the Lord our God. Until we arrive there, we do not know what we must use to serve the Lord.” 504 

10:27 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he was not willing to release them. 10:28 Pharaoh said to him, “Go from me! 505  Watch out for yourself! Do not appear before me again, 506  for when 507  you see my face you will die! 10:29 Moses said, “As you wish! 508  I will not see your face again.” 509 


The Tenth Blow: Death


The Lord said to Moses, “I will bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt; after that he will release you from this place. When he releases you, 511  he will drive you out completely 512  from this place. 11:2 Instruct 513  the people that each man and each woman is to request 514  from his or her neighbor 515  items of silver and gold.” 516 

11:3 (Now the Lord granted the people favor with 517  the Egyptians. Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, respected by Pharaoh’s servants and by the Egyptian people.) 518 

11:4 Moses said, “Thus says the Lord: ‘About midnight 519  I will go throughout Egypt, 520  11:5 and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh 521  who sits on his throne, to the firstborn son of the slave girl who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 11:6 There will be a great cry throughout the whole land of Egypt, such as there has never been, 522  nor ever will be again. 523  11:7 But against any of the Israelites not even a dog will bark 524  against either people or animals, 525  so that you may know that the Lord distinguishes 526  between Egypt and Israel.’ 11:8 All these your servants will come down to me and bow down 527  to me, saying, ‘Go, you and all the people who follow 528  you,’ and after that I will go out.” Then Moses 529  went out from Pharaoh in great anger.

11:9 The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not listen to you, so that my wonders 530  may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”

11:10 So Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, but the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites from his land.


The Institution of the Passover


The Lord said 532  to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 533  12:2 This month is to be your beginning of months; it will be your first month of the year. 534  12:3 Tell the whole community of Israel, ‘In the tenth day of this month they each 535  must take a lamb 536  for themselves according to their families 537 a lamb for each household. 538  12:4 If any household is too small 539  for a lamb, 540  the man 541  and his next-door neighbor 542  are to take 543  a lamb according to the number of people – you will make your count for the lamb according to how much each one can eat. 544  12:5 Your lamb must be 545  perfect, 546  a male, one year old; 547  you may take 548  it from the sheep or from the goats. 12:6 You must care for it 549  until the fourteenth day of this month, and then the whole community 550  of Israel will kill it around sundown. 551  12:7 They will take some of the blood and put it on the two side posts and top of the doorframe of the houses where they will eat it. 12:8 They will eat the meat the same night; 552  they will eat it roasted over the fire with bread made without yeast 553  and with bitter herbs. 12:9 Do not eat it raw 554  or boiled in water, but roast it over the fire with its head, its legs, and its entrails. 12:10 You must leave nothing until morning, but you must burn with fire whatever remains of it until morning. 12:11 This is how you are to eat it – dressed to travel, 555  your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. You are to eat it in haste. It is the Lord’s Passover. 556 

12:12 I will pass through 557  the land of Egypt in the same 558  night, and I will attack 559  all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both of humans and of animals, 560  and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment. 561  I am the Lord. 12:13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, so that when I see 562  the blood I will pass over you, 563  and this plague 564  will not fall on you to destroy you 565  when I attack 566  the land of Egypt. 567 

12:14 This day will become 568  a memorial 569  for you, and you will celebrate it as a festival 570  to the Lordyou will celebrate it perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 571  12:15 For seven days 572  you must eat 573  bread made without yeast. 574  Surely 575  on the first day you must put away yeast from your houses because anyone who eats bread made with yeast 576  from the first day to the seventh day will be cut off 577  from Israel.

12:16 On the first day there will be a holy convocation, 578  and on the seventh day there will be a holy convocation for you. You must do no work of any kind 579  on them, only what every person will eat – that alone may be prepared for you. 12:17 So you will keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because on this very 580  day I brought your regiments 581  out from the land of Egypt, and so you must keep this day perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 582  12:18 In the first month, 583  from the fourteenth day of the month, in the evening, you will eat bread made without yeast until the twenty-first day of the month in the evening. 12:19 For seven days 584  yeast must not be found in your houses, for whoever eats what is made with yeast – that person 585  will be cut off from the community of Israel, whether a foreigner 586  or one born in the land. 12:20 You will not eat anything made with yeast; in all the places where you live you must eat bread made without yeast.’

12:21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel, and told them, “Go and select 587  for yourselves a lamb or young goat 588  for your families, and kill the Passover animals. 589  12:22 Take a branch of hyssop, 590  dip it in the blood that is in the basin, 591  and apply to the top of the doorframe and the two side posts some of the blood that is in the basin. Not one of you is to go out 592  the door of his house until morning. 12:23 For the Lord will pass through to strike Egypt, and when he sees 593  the blood on the top of the doorframe and the two side posts, then the Lord will pass over the door, and he will not permit the destroyer 594  to enter your houses to strike you. 595  12:24 You must observe this event as an ordinance for you and for your children forever. 12:25 When you enter the land that the Lord will give to you, just as he said, you must observe 596  this ceremony. 12:26 When your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ 597  12:27 then you will say, ‘It is the sacrifice 598  of the Lord’s Passover, when he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when he struck 599  Egypt and delivered our households.’” The people bowed down low 600  to the ground, 12:28 and the Israelites went away and did exactly as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron. 601 


The Deliverance from Egypt


It happened 603  at midnight – the Lord attacked all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the prison, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 12:30 Pharaoh got up 604  in the night, 605  along with all his servants and all Egypt, and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was no house 606  in which there was not someone dead. 12:31 Pharaoh 607  summoned Moses and Aaron in the night and said, “Get up, get out 608  from among my people, both you and the Israelites! Go, serve the Lord as you have requested! 609  12:32 Also, take your flocks and your herds, just as you have requested, and leave. But bless me also.” 610 

12:33 The Egyptians were urging 611  the people on, in order to send them out of the land quickly, 612  for they were saying, “We are all dead! 12:34 So the people took their dough before the yeast was added, 613  with their kneading troughs bound up in their clothing on their shoulders. 12:35 Now the Israelites had done 614  as Moses told them – they had requested from the Egyptians 615  silver and gold items and clothing. 12:36 The Lord 616  gave the people favor 617  in the sight of the Egyptians, and they gave them whatever they wanted, 618  and so they plundered Egypt. 619 

12:37 The Israelites journeyed 620  from Rameses 621  to Sukkoth. There were about 600,000 men 622  on foot, plus their dependants. 623  12:38 A mixed multitude 624  also went up with them, and flocks and herds – a very large number of cattle. 625  12:39 They baked cakes of bread without yeast using the dough they had brought from Egypt, for it was made without yeast – because they were thrust out 626  of Egypt and were not able to delay, they 627  could not prepare 628  food for themselves either.

12:40 Now the length of time the Israelites lived in Egypt was 430 years. 629  12:41 At the end of the 430 years, on the very day, all the regiments 630  of the Lord went out of the land of Egypt. 12:42 It was a night of vigil for the Lord to bring them out from the land of Egypt, 631  and so 632  on this night all Israel is to keep the vigil 633  to the Lord for generations to come.


Participation in the Passover


The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover. No foreigner may 635  share in eating it. 636  12:44 But everyone’s servant who is bought for money, after you have circumcised him, may eat it. 12:45 A foreigner and a hired worker must not eat it. 12:46 It must be eaten in one house; you must not bring any of the meat outside the house, and you must not break a bone of it. 12:47 The whole community of Israel must observe it.

12:48When a foreigner lives 637  with you and wants to observe the Passover to the Lord, all his males must be circumcised, 638  and then he may approach and observe it, and he will be like one who is born in the land 639 but no uncircumcised person may eat of it. 12:49 The same law will apply 640  to the person who is native-born and to the foreigner who lives among you.”

12:50 So all the Israelites did exactly as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron. 641  12:51 And on this very day the Lord brought the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments.


The Law of the Firstborn


The Lord spoke 643  to Moses: 13:2 Set apart 644  to me every firstborn male – the first offspring of every womb 645  among the Israelites, whether human or animal; it is mine.” 646 

13:3 Moses said to the people, “Remember 647  this day on which you came out from Egypt, from the place where you were enslaved, 648  for the Lord brought you out of there 649  with a mighty hand – and no bread made with yeast may be eaten. 650  13:4 On this day, 651  in the month of Abib, 652  you are going out. 653 

13:5 When 654  the Lord brings you to the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which he swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, 655  then you will keep 656  this ceremony 657  in this month. 13:6 For seven days 658  you must eat 659  bread made without yeast, and on the seventh day there is to be 660  a festival to the Lord. 13:7 Bread made without yeast must be eaten 661  for seven days; 662  no bread made with yeast shall be seen 663  among you, and you must have no yeast among you within any of your borders.

13:8 You are to tell your son 664  on that day, 665 It is 666  because of what 667  the Lord did for me when I came out of Egypt.’ 13:9 668  It 669  will be a sign 670  for you on your hand and a memorial 671  on your forehead, 672  so that the law of the Lord may be 673  in your mouth, 674  for 675  with a mighty hand the Lord brought you out of Egypt. 13:10 So you must keep 676  this ordinance at its appointed time from year to year. 677 

13:11 When the Lord brings you 678  into the land of the Canaanites, 679  as he swore to you and to your fathers, and gives it 680  to you, 13:12 then you must give over 681  to the Lord the first offspring of every womb. 682  Every firstling 683  of a beast that you have 684 the males will be the Lord’s. 685  13:13 Every firstling 686  of a donkey you must redeem 687  with a lamb, and if you do not redeem it, then you must break its neck. 688  Every firstborn of 689  your sons you must redeem.

13:14 690 

In the future, 691  when your son asks you 692  ‘What is this?’ 693  you are to tell him, ‘With a mighty hand 694  the Lord brought us out from Egypt, from the land of slavery. 695  13:15 When Pharaoh stubbornly refused 696  to release us, the Lord killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of people to the firstborn of animals. 697  That is why I am sacrificing 698  to the Lord the first male offspring of every womb, but all my firstborn sons I redeem.’ 13:16 It will be for a sign on your hand and for frontlets 699  on your forehead, for with a mighty hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt.” 700 


The Leading of God


When Pharaoh released 702  the people, God did not lead them 703  by the way to the land 704  of the Philistines, 705  although 706  that was nearby, for God said, 707 Lest 708  the people change their minds 709  and return to Egypt when they experience 710  war.” 13:18 So God brought the people around by the way of the desert to the Red Sea, 711  and the Israelites went up from the land of Egypt prepared for battle. 712 

13:19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for Joseph 713  had made the Israelites solemnly swear, 714 God will surely attend 715  to you, and you will carry 716  my bones up from this place with you.”

13:20 They journeyed from Sukkoth and camped in Etham, on the edge of the desert. 13:21 Now the Lord was going before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them in the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, 717  so that they could 718  travel day or night. 719  13:22 He did not remove the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night from before the people. 720 


The Victory at the Red Sea


The Lord spoke to Moses: 14:2 Tell the Israelites that they must turn and camp 722  before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea; you are to camp by the sea before Baal Zephon opposite it. 723  14:3 Pharaoh will think 724  regarding the Israelites, ‘They are wandering around confused 725  in the land – the desert has closed in on them.’ 726  14:4 I will harden 727  Pharaoh’s heart, and he will chase after them. I will gain honor 728  because of Pharaoh and because of all his army, and the Egyptians will know 729  that I am the Lord.” So this is what they did. 730 

14:5 When it was reported 731  to the king of Egypt that the people had fled, 732  the heart of Pharaoh and his servants was turned against the people, and the king and his servants said, 733 What in the world have we done? 734  For we have released the people of Israel 735  from serving us! 14:6 Then he prepared 736  his chariots and took his army 737  with him. 14:7 He took six hundred select 738  chariots, and all the rest of the chariots of Egypt, 739  and officers 740  on all of them.

14:8 But the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he chased after the Israelites. Now the Israelites were going out defiantly. 741  14:9 The Egyptians chased after them, and all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh and his horsemen and his army overtook them camping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-Zephon. 14:10 When 742  Pharaoh got closer, 743  the Israelites looked up, 744  and there were the Egyptians marching after them, 745  and they were terrified. 746  The Israelites cried out to the Lord, 747  14:11 and they said to Moses, “Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the desert? 748  What in the world 749  have you done to us by bringing 750  us out of Egypt? 14:12 Isn’t this what we told you 751  in Egypt, ‘Leave us alone so that we can serve the Egyptians, 752  because it is better for us to serve 753  the Egyptians than to die in the desert!’ 754 

14:13 Moses said to the people, “Do not fear! 755  Stand firm 756  and see 757  the salvation 758  of the Lord that he will provide 759  for you today; for the Egyptians that you see today you will never, ever see again. 760  14:14 The Lord 761  will fight for you, and you can be still.” 762 

14:15 The Lord said to Moses, “Why do you cry out to me? Tell the Israelites to move on. 763  14:16 And as for you, 764  lift up your staff and extend your hand toward the sea and divide it, so that 765  the Israelites may go through the middle of the sea on dry ground. 14:17 And as for me, I am going to harden 766  the hearts of the Egyptians so that 767  they will come after them, that I may be honored 768  because 769  of Pharaoh and his army and his chariots and his horsemen. 14:18 And the Egyptians will know 770  that I am the Lord when I have gained my honor 771  because of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.”

14:19 The angel of God, who was going before the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them, and the pillar 772  of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them. 14:20 It came between the Egyptian camp and the Israelite camp; it was a dark cloud 773  and it lit up the night so that one camp did not come near the other 774  the whole night. 775  14:21 Moses stretched out his hand toward the sea, and the Lord drove the sea apart 776  by a strong east wind all that night, and he made the sea into dry land, and the water was divided. 14:22 So the Israelites went through the middle of the sea on dry ground, the water forming a wall 777  for them on their right and on their left.

14:23 The Egyptians chased them and followed them into the middle of the sea – all the horses of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen. 14:24 In the morning watch 778  the Lord looked down 779  on the Egyptian army 780  through the pillar of fire and cloud, and he threw the Egyptian army 781  into a panic. 782  14:25 He jammed 783  the wheels of their chariots so that they had difficulty driving, 784  and the Egyptians said, “Let’s flee 785  from Israel, for the Lord fights 786  for them against Egypt!

14:26 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sea, so that the waters may flow 787  back on the Egyptians, on their chariots, and on their horsemen! 14:27 So Moses extended his hand toward the sea, and the sea returned to its normal state 788  when the sun began to rise. 789  Now the Egyptians were fleeing 790  before it, but the Lord overthrew 791  the Egyptians in the middle of the sea. 14:28 The water returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen and all the army of Pharaoh that was coming after the Israelites into the sea 792 not so much as one of them survived! 793  14:29 But the Israelites walked on dry ground in the middle of the sea, the water forming a wall for them on their right and on their left. 14:30 So the Lord saved 794  Israel on that day from the power 795  of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead 796  on the shore of the sea. 14:31 When Israel saw 797  the great power 798  that the Lord had exercised 799  over the Egyptians, they 800  feared the Lord, and they believed in 801  the Lord and in his servant Moses. 802 

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