Bible: Exodus 12-14


The Institution of the Passover


The Lord said 2  to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 3  12:2 This month is to be your beginning of months; it will be your first month of the year. 4  12:3 Tell the whole community of Israel, ‘In the tenth day of this month they each 5  must take a lamb 6  for themselves according to their families 7 a lamb for each household. 8  12:4 If any household is too small 9  for a lamb, 10  the man 11  and his next-door neighbor 12  are to take 13  a lamb according to the number of people – you will make your count for the lamb according to how much each one can eat. 14  12:5 Your lamb must be 15  perfect, 16  a male, one year old; 17  you may take 18  it from the sheep or from the goats. 12:6 You must care for it 19  until the fourteenth day of this month, and then the whole community 20  of Israel will kill it around sundown. 21  12:7 They will take some of the blood and put it on the two side posts and top of the doorframe of the houses where they will eat it. 12:8 They will eat the meat the same night; 22  they will eat it roasted over the fire with bread made without yeast 23  and with bitter herbs. 12:9 Do not eat it raw 24  or boiled in water, but roast it over the fire with its head, its legs, and its entrails. 12:10 You must leave nothing until morning, but you must burn with fire whatever remains of it until morning. 12:11 This is how you are to eat it – dressed to travel, 25  your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. You are to eat it in haste. It is the Lord’s Passover. 26 

12:12 I will pass through 27  the land of Egypt in the same 28  night, and I will attack 29  all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both of humans and of animals, 30  and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment. 31  I am the Lord. 12:13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, so that when I see 32  the blood I will pass over you, 33  and this plague 34  will not fall on you to destroy you 35  when I attack 36  the land of Egypt. 37 

12:14 This day will become 38  a memorial 39  for you, and you will celebrate it as a festival 40  to the Lordyou will celebrate it perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 41  12:15 For seven days 42  you must eat 43  bread made without yeast. 44  Surely 45  on the first day you must put away yeast from your houses because anyone who eats bread made with yeast 46  from the first day to the seventh day will be cut off 47  from Israel.

12:16 On the first day there will be a holy convocation, 48  and on the seventh day there will be a holy convocation for you. You must do no work of any kind 49  on them, only what every person will eat – that alone may be prepared for you. 12:17 So you will keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because on this very 50  day I brought your regiments 51  out from the land of Egypt, and so you must keep this day perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 52  12:18 In the first month, 53  from the fourteenth day of the month, in the evening, you will eat bread made without yeast until the twenty-first day of the month in the evening. 12:19 For seven days 54  yeast must not be found in your houses, for whoever eats what is made with yeast – that person 55  will be cut off from the community of Israel, whether a foreigner 56  or one born in the land. 12:20 You will not eat anything made with yeast; in all the places where you live you must eat bread made without yeast.’

12:21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel, and told them, “Go and select 57  for yourselves a lamb or young goat 58  for your families, and kill the Passover animals. 59  12:22 Take a branch of hyssop, 60  dip it in the blood that is in the basin, 61  and apply to the top of the doorframe and the two side posts some of the blood that is in the basin. Not one of you is to go out 62  the door of his house until morning. 12:23 For the Lord will pass through to strike Egypt, and when he sees 63  the blood on the top of the doorframe and the two side posts, then the Lord will pass over the door, and he will not permit the destroyer 64  to enter your houses to strike you. 65  12:24 You must observe this event as an ordinance for you and for your children forever. 12:25 When you enter the land that the Lord will give to you, just as he said, you must observe 66  this ceremony. 12:26 When your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ 67  12:27 then you will say, ‘It is the sacrifice 68  of the Lord’s Passover, when he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when he struck 69  Egypt and delivered our households.’” The people bowed down low 70  to the ground, 12:28 and the Israelites went away and did exactly as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron. 71 


The Deliverance from Egypt


It happened 73  at midnight – the Lord attacked all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the prison, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 12:30 Pharaoh got up 74  in the night, 75  along with all his servants and all Egypt, and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was no house 76  in which there was not someone dead. 12:31 Pharaoh 77  summoned Moses and Aaron in the night and said, “Get up, get out 78  from among my people, both you and the Israelites! Go, serve the Lord as you have requested! 79  12:32 Also, take your flocks and your herds, just as you have requested, and leave. But bless me also.” 80 

12:33 The Egyptians were urging 81  the people on, in order to send them out of the land quickly, 82  for they were saying, “We are all dead! 12:34 So the people took their dough before the yeast was added, 83  with their kneading troughs bound up in their clothing on their shoulders. 12:35 Now the Israelites had done 84  as Moses told them – they had requested from the Egyptians 85  silver and gold items and clothing. 12:36 The Lord 86  gave the people favor 87  in the sight of the Egyptians, and they gave them whatever they wanted, 88  and so they plundered Egypt. 89 

12:37 The Israelites journeyed 90  from Rameses 91  to Sukkoth. There were about 600,000 men 92  on foot, plus their dependants. 93  12:38 A mixed multitude 94  also went up with them, and flocks and herds – a very large number of cattle. 95  12:39 They baked cakes of bread without yeast using the dough they had brought from Egypt, for it was made without yeast – because they were thrust out 96  of Egypt and were not able to delay, they 97  could not prepare 98  food for themselves either.

12:40 Now the length of time the Israelites lived in Egypt was 430 years. 99  12:41 At the end of the 430 years, on the very day, all the regiments 100  of the Lord went out of the land of Egypt. 12:42 It was a night of vigil for the Lord to bring them out from the land of Egypt, 101  and so 102  on this night all Israel is to keep the vigil 103  to the Lord for generations to come.


Participation in the Passover


The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover. No foreigner may 105  share in eating it. 106  12:44 But everyone’s servant who is bought for money, after you have circumcised him, may eat it. 12:45 A foreigner and a hired worker must not eat it. 12:46 It must be eaten in one house; you must not bring any of the meat outside the house, and you must not break a bone of it. 12:47 The whole community of Israel must observe it.

12:48When a foreigner lives 107  with you and wants to observe the Passover to the Lord, all his males must be circumcised, 108  and then he may approach and observe it, and he will be like one who is born in the land 109 but no uncircumcised person may eat of it. 12:49 The same law will apply 110  to the person who is native-born and to the foreigner who lives among you.”

12:50 So all the Israelites did exactly as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron. 111  12:51 And on this very day the Lord brought the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments.


The Law of the Firstborn


The Lord spoke 113  to Moses: 13:2 Set apart 114  to me every firstborn male – the first offspring of every womb 115  among the Israelites, whether human or animal; it is mine.” 116 

13:3 Moses said to the people, “Remember 117  this day on which you came out from Egypt, from the place where you were enslaved, 118  for the Lord brought you out of there 119  with a mighty hand – and no bread made with yeast may be eaten. 120  13:4 On this day, 121  in the month of Abib, 122  you are going out. 123 

13:5 When 124  the Lord brings you to the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which he swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, 125  then you will keep 126  this ceremony 127  in this month. 13:6 For seven days 128  you must eat 129  bread made without yeast, and on the seventh day there is to be 130  a festival to the Lord. 13:7 Bread made without yeast must be eaten 131  for seven days; 132  no bread made with yeast shall be seen 133  among you, and you must have no yeast among you within any of your borders.

13:8 You are to tell your son 134  on that day, 135 It is 136  because of what 137  the Lord did for me when I came out of Egypt.’ 13:9 138  It 139  will be a sign 140  for you on your hand and a memorial 141  on your forehead, 142  so that the law of the Lord may be 143  in your mouth, 144  for 145  with a mighty hand the Lord brought you out of Egypt. 13:10 So you must keep 146  this ordinance at its appointed time from year to year. 147 

13:11 When the Lord brings you 148  into the land of the Canaanites, 149  as he swore to you and to your fathers, and gives it 150  to you, 13:12 then you must give over 151  to the Lord the first offspring of every womb. 152  Every firstling 153  of a beast that you have 154 the males will be the Lord’s. 155  13:13 Every firstling 156  of a donkey you must redeem 157  with a lamb, and if you do not redeem it, then you must break its neck. 158  Every firstborn of 159  your sons you must redeem.

13:14 160 

In the future, 161  when your son asks you 162  ‘What is this?’ 163  you are to tell him, ‘With a mighty hand 164  the Lord brought us out from Egypt, from the land of slavery. 165  13:15 When Pharaoh stubbornly refused 166  to release us, the Lord killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of people to the firstborn of animals. 167  That is why I am sacrificing 168  to the Lord the first male offspring of every womb, but all my firstborn sons I redeem.’ 13:16 It will be for a sign on your hand and for frontlets 169  on your forehead, for with a mighty hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt.” 170 


The Leading of God


When Pharaoh released 172  the people, God did not lead them 173  by the way to the land 174  of the Philistines, 175  although 176  that was nearby, for God said, 177 Lest 178  the people change their minds 179  and return to Egypt when they experience 180  war.” 13:18 So God brought the people around by the way of the desert to the Red Sea, 181  and the Israelites went up from the land of Egypt prepared for battle. 182 

13:19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for Joseph 183  had made the Israelites solemnly swear, 184 God will surely attend 185  to you, and you will carry 186  my bones up from this place with you.”

13:20 They journeyed from Sukkoth and camped in Etham, on the edge of the desert. 13:21 Now the Lord was going before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them in the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, 187  so that they could 188  travel day or night. 189  13:22 He did not remove the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night from before the people. 190 


The Victory at the Red Sea


The Lord spoke to Moses: 14:2 Tell the Israelites that they must turn and camp 192  before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea; you are to camp by the sea before Baal Zephon opposite it. 193  14:3 Pharaoh will think 194  regarding the Israelites, ‘They are wandering around confused 195  in the land – the desert has closed in on them.’ 196  14:4 I will harden 197  Pharaoh’s heart, and he will chase after them. I will gain honor 198  because of Pharaoh and because of all his army, and the Egyptians will know 199  that I am the Lord.” So this is what they did. 200 

14:5 When it was reported 201  to the king of Egypt that the people had fled, 202  the heart of Pharaoh and his servants was turned against the people, and the king and his servants said, 203 What in the world have we done? 204  For we have released the people of Israel 205  from serving us! 14:6 Then he prepared 206  his chariots and took his army 207  with him. 14:7 He took six hundred select 208  chariots, and all the rest of the chariots of Egypt, 209  and officers 210  on all of them.

14:8 But the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he chased after the Israelites. Now the Israelites were going out defiantly. 211  14:9 The Egyptians chased after them, and all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh and his horsemen and his army overtook them camping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-Zephon. 14:10 When 212  Pharaoh got closer, 213  the Israelites looked up, 214  and there were the Egyptians marching after them, 215  and they were terrified. 216  The Israelites cried out to the Lord, 217  14:11 and they said to Moses, “Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the desert? 218  What in the world 219  have you done to us by bringing 220  us out of Egypt? 14:12 Isn’t this what we told you 221  in Egypt, ‘Leave us alone so that we can serve the Egyptians, 222  because it is better for us to serve 223  the Egyptians than to die in the desert!’ 224 

14:13 Moses said to the people, “Do not fear! 225  Stand firm 226  and see 227  the salvation 228  of the Lord that he will provide 229  for you today; for the Egyptians that you see today you will never, ever see again. 230  14:14 The Lord 231  will fight for you, and you can be still.” 232 

14:15 The Lord said to Moses, “Why do you cry out to me? Tell the Israelites to move on. 233  14:16 And as for you, 234  lift up your staff and extend your hand toward the sea and divide it, so that 235  the Israelites may go through the middle of the sea on dry ground. 14:17 And as for me, I am going to harden 236  the hearts of the Egyptians so that 237  they will come after them, that I may be honored 238  because 239  of Pharaoh and his army and his chariots and his horsemen. 14:18 And the Egyptians will know 240  that I am the Lord when I have gained my honor 241  because of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.”

14:19 The angel of God, who was going before the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them, and the pillar 242  of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them. 14:20 It came between the Egyptian camp and the Israelite camp; it was a dark cloud 243  and it lit up the night so that one camp did not come near the other 244  the whole night. 245  14:21 Moses stretched out his hand toward the sea, and the Lord drove the sea apart 246  by a strong east wind all that night, and he made the sea into dry land, and the water was divided. 14:22 So the Israelites went through the middle of the sea on dry ground, the water forming a wall 247  for them on their right and on their left.

14:23 The Egyptians chased them and followed them into the middle of the sea – all the horses of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen. 14:24 In the morning watch 248  the Lord looked down 249  on the Egyptian army 250  through the pillar of fire and cloud, and he threw the Egyptian army 251  into a panic. 252  14:25 He jammed 253  the wheels of their chariots so that they had difficulty driving, 254  and the Egyptians said, “Let’s flee 255  from Israel, for the Lord fights 256  for them against Egypt!

14:26 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sea, so that the waters may flow 257  back on the Egyptians, on their chariots, and on their horsemen! 14:27 So Moses extended his hand toward the sea, and the sea returned to its normal state 258  when the sun began to rise. 259  Now the Egyptians were fleeing 260  before it, but the Lord overthrew 261  the Egyptians in the middle of the sea. 14:28 The water returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen and all the army of Pharaoh that was coming after the Israelites into the sea 262 not so much as one of them survived! 263  14:29 But the Israelites walked on dry ground in the middle of the sea, the water forming a wall for them on their right and on their left. 14:30 So the Lord saved 264  Israel on that day from the power 265  of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead 266  on the shore of the sea. 14:31 When Israel saw 267  the great power 268  that the Lord had exercised 269  over the Egyptians, they 270  feared the Lord, and they believed in 271  the Lord and in his servant Moses. 272 

NET Bible Study Environment