Blessing during Bondage in Egypt 1
These 2 are the names 3 of the sons of Israel 4 who entered Egypt – each man with his household 5 entered with Jacob: 1:2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, 1:3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 1:4 Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 1:5 All the people 6 who were directly descended 7 from Jacob numbered seventy. 8 But Joseph was already in Egypt, 9 1:6 and in time 10 Joseph 11 and his brothers and all that generation died. 1:7 The Israelites, 12 however, 13 were fruitful, increased greatly, multiplied, and became extremely strong, 14 so that the land was filled with them.
1:8 Then a new king, 15 who did not know about 16 Joseph, came to power 17 over Egypt. 1:9 He said 18 to his people, “Look at 19 the Israelite people, more numerous and stronger than we are! 1:10 Come, let’s deal wisely 20 with them. Otherwise 21 they will continue to multiply, 22 and if 23 a war breaks out, they will ally themselves with 24 our enemies and fight against us and leave 25 the country.”
1:11 So they put foremen 26 over the Israelites 27 to oppress 28 them with hard labor. As a result 29 they built Pithom and Rameses 30 as store cities for Pharaoh. 1:12 But the more the Egyptians 31 oppressed them, the more they multiplied and spread. 32 As a result the Egyptians loathed 33 the Israelites, 1:13 and they 34 made the Israelites serve rigorously. 35 1:14 They made their lives bitter 36 by 37 hard service with mortar and bricks and by all kinds of service 38 in the fields. Every kind of service the Israelites were required to give was rigorous. 39
1:15 The king of Egypt said 40 to the Hebrew midwives, 41 one of whom was named Shiphrah and the other Puah, 42 1:16 43 “When you assist 44 the Hebrew women in childbirth, observe at the delivery: 45 If it is a son, kill him, 46 but if it is a daughter, she may live.” 47 1:17 But 48 the midwives feared God and did not do what the king of Egypt had told them; they let the boys live. 49
1:18 Then the king of Egypt summoned 50 the midwives and said to them, “Why have you done this and let the boys live?” 51 1:19 The midwives said to Pharaoh, “Because the Hebrew 52 women are not like the Egyptian women – for the Hebrew women 53 are vigorous; they give birth before the midwife gets to them!” 54 1:20 So God treated the midwives well, 55 and the people multiplied and became very strong. 1:21 And because the midwives feared God, he made 56 households 57 for them.
1:22 Then Pharaoh commanded all his people, “All sons 58 that are born you must throw 59 into the river, but all daughters you may let live.” 60 2:1
The Birth of the Deliverer 61
A man from the household 62 of Levi married 63 a woman who was a descendant of Levi. 64 2:2 The woman became pregnant 65 and gave birth to a son. When 66 she saw that 67 he was a healthy 68 child, she hid him for three months. 2:3 But when she was no longer able to hide him, she took a papyrus basket 69 for him and sealed it with bitumen and pitch. She put the child in it and set it among the reeds along the edge of the Nile. 70 2:4 His sister stationed herself 71 at a distance to find out 72 what would 73 happen to him.
2:5 Then the daughter of Pharaoh 74 came down to wash herself 75 by the Nile, while her attendants were walking alongside the river, 76 and she saw the basket among the reeds. She sent one of her attendants, 77 took it, 78 2:6 opened it, 79 and saw the child 80 – a boy, 81 crying! 82 – and she felt compassion 83 for him and said, “This is one of the Hebrews’ children.”
2:7 Then his sister said to Pharaoh’s daughter, “Shall I go and get 84 a nursing woman 85 for you from the Hebrews, so that she may nurse 86 the child for you?” 2:8 Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Yes, do so.” 87 So the young girl 88 went and got 89 the child’s mother. 90 2:9 Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Take this child 91 and nurse him for me, and I will pay your 92 wages.” So the woman took the child and nursed him.
2:10 When the child grew older 93 she brought him to Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. 94 She named him Moses, saying, “Because I drew him from the water.” 95 2:11
The Presumption of the Deliverer 96
In those days, 97 when 98 Moses had grown up, he went out to his people 99 and observed 100 their hard labor, and he saw an Egyptian man attacking 101 a Hebrew man, one of his own people. 102 2:12 He looked this way and that 103 and saw that no one was there, 104 and then he attacked 105 the Egyptian and concealed the body 106 in the sand. 2:13 When he went out 107 the next day, 108 there were 109 two Hebrew men fighting. So he said to the one who was in the wrong, 110 “Why are you attacking 111 your fellow Hebrew?” 112
2:14 The man 113 replied, “Who made you a ruler 114 and a judge over us? Are you planning 115 to kill me like you killed that 116 Egyptian?” Then Moses was afraid, thinking, 117 “Surely what I did 118 has become known.” 2:15 When Pharaoh heard 119 about this event, 120 he sought to kill Moses. So Moses fled 121 from Pharaoh and settled in the land of Midian, 122 and he settled 123 by a certain well. 124
2:16 Now a priest of Midian had seven daughters, and they came and began to draw 125 water 126 and fill 127 the troughs in order to water their father’s flock. 2:17 When some 128 shepherds came and drove them away, 129 Moses came up and defended them 130 and then watered their flock. 2:18 So when they came home 131 to their father Reuel, 132 he asked, “Why have you come home so early 133 today?” 2:19 They said, “An Egyptian man rescued us 134 from the shepherds, 135 and he actually 136 drew water for us and watered the flock!” 2:20 He said 137 to his daughters, “So where is he? 138 Why in the world 139 did you leave the man? Call him, so that he may eat 140 a meal 141 with us.”
2:21 Moses agreed 142 to stay with the man, and he gave his daughter Zipporah to Moses in marriage. 143 2:22 When she bore 144 a son, Moses 145 named him Gershom, for he said, “I have become a resident foreigner in a foreign land.” 146 2:23
The Call of the Deliverer 147
During 148 that long period of time 149 the king of Egypt died, and the Israelites 150 groaned because of the slave labor. They cried out, and their desperate cry 151 because of their slave labor went up to God. 2:24 God heard their groaning, 152 God remembered 153 his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob, 2:25 God saw 154 the Israelites, and God understood…. 155
3:1 Now Moses 156 was shepherding the flock of his father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian, and he led the flock to the far side of the desert 157 and came to the mountain of God, to Horeb. 158 3:2 The angel of the Lord 159 appeared 160 to him in 161 a flame of fire from within a bush. 162 He looked 163 – and 164 the bush was ablaze with fire, but it was not being consumed! 165 3:3 So Moses thought, 166 “I will turn aside to see 167 this amazing 168 sight. Why does the bush not burn up?” 169 3:4 When the Lord 170 saw that 171 he had turned aside to look, God called to him from within the bush and said, “Moses, Moses!” 172 And Moses 173 said, “Here I am.” 3:5 God 174 said, “Do not approach any closer! 175 Take your sandals off your feet, for the place where you are standing is holy 176 ground.” 177 3:6 He added, “I am the God of your father, 178 the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” Then Moses hid his face, because he was afraid to look 179 at God.
3:7 The Lord said, “I have surely seen 180 the affliction of my people who are in Egypt. I have heard their cry because of their taskmasters, for I know their sorrows. 181 3:8 I have come down 182 to deliver them 183 from the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up from that land to a land that is both good and spacious, 184 to a land flowing with milk and honey, 185 to the region of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites. 186 3:9 And now indeed 187 the cry 188 of the Israelites has come to me, and I have also seen how severely the Egyptians oppress them. 189 3:10 So now go, and I will send you 190 to Pharaoh to bring my people, the Israelites, out of Egypt.”
3:11 Moses said 191 to God, 192 “Who am I, that I should go 193 to Pharaoh, or that I should bring the Israelites out of Egypt?” 3:12 He replied, 194 “Surely I will be with you, 195 and this will be the sign 196 to you that I have sent you: When you bring the people out of Egypt, you and they will serve 197 God on this mountain.”
3:13 Moses said 198 to God, “If 199 I go to the Israelites and tell them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ 200 – what should I say 201 to them?”
3:14 God said to Moses, “I am that I am.” 202 And he said, “You must say this 203 to the Israelites, ‘I am has sent me to you.’” 3:15 God also said to Moses, “You must say this to the Israelites, ‘The Lord 204 – the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob – has sent me to you. This is my name 205 forever, and this is my memorial from generation to generation.’ 206
3:16 “Go and bring together 207 the elders of Israel and tell them, ‘The Lord, the God of your fathers, 208 appeared 209 to me – the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob – saying, “I have attended carefully 210 to you and to what has been done 211 to you in Egypt, 3:17 and I have promised 212 that I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt to the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, 213 to a land flowing with milk and honey.”’
3:18 “The elders 214 will listen 215 to you, and then you and the elders of Israel must go to the king of Egypt and tell him, ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has met 216 with us. So now, let us go 217 three days’ journey into the wilderness, so that we may sacrifice 218 to the Lord our God.’ 3:19 But I know that the king of Egypt will not let you go, 219 not even under force. 220 3:20 So I will extend my hand 221 and strike Egypt with all my wonders 222 that I will do among them, and after that he will release you. 223
3:21 “I will grant this people favor with 224 the Egyptians, so that when 225 you depart you will not leave empty-handed. 3:22 Every 226 woman will ask her neighbor and the one who happens to be staying 227 in her house for items of silver and gold 228 and for clothing. You will put these articles on your sons and daughters – thus you will plunder Egypt!” 229 4:1
The Source of Sufficiency 230
Moses answered again, 231 “And if 232 they do not believe me or pay attention to me, 233 but say, ‘The Lord has not appeared to you’?” 4:2 The Lord said to him, “What is that in your hand?” He said, “A staff.” 234 4:3 The Lord 235 said, “Throw it to the ground.” So he threw it to the ground, and it became a snake, 236 and Moses ran from it. 4:4 But the Lord said to Moses, “Put out your hand and grab it by the tail” – so he put out his hand and caught it, and it became a staff in his hand 237 – 4:5 “that they may believe that the Lord, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to you.”
4:6 The Lord also said to him, “Put your hand into your robe.” 238 So he put his hand into his robe, and when he brought it out – there was his hand, 239 leprous like snow! 240 4:7 He said, “Put your hand back into your robe.” So he put his hand back into his robe, and when he brought it out from his robe – there it was, 241 restored 242 like the rest of his skin! 243 4:8 “If 244 they do not believe you or pay attention to 245 the former sign, then they may 246 believe the latter sign. 247 4:9 And if 248 they do not believe even these two signs or listen to you, 249 then take 250 some water from the Nile and pour it out on the dry ground. The water you take out of the Nile will become blood on the dry ground.” 251
4:10 Then Moses said to the Lord, 252 “O 253 my Lord, 254 I am not an eloquent man, 255 neither in the past 256 nor since you have spoken to your servant, for I am slow of speech and slow of tongue.” 257
4:11 The Lord said to him, “Who gave 258 a mouth to man, or who makes a person mute or deaf or seeing or blind? Is it not I, the Lord? 259 4:12 So now go, and I will be with your mouth 260 and will teach you 261 what you must say.” 262
4:13 But Moses said, 263 “O 264 my Lord, please send anyone else whom you wish to send!” 265
4:14 Then the Lord became angry with 266 Moses, and he said, “What about 267 your brother Aaron the Levite? 268 I know that he can speak very well. 269 Moreover, he is coming 270 to meet you, and when he sees you he will be glad in his heart. 271
4:15 “So you are to speak to him and put the words in his mouth. And as for me, I will be with your mouth 272 and with his mouth, 273 and I will teach you both 274 what you must do. 275 4:16 He 276 will speak for you to the people, and it will be as if 277 he 278 were your mouth 279 and as if you were his God. 280 4:17 You will also take in your hand this staff, with which you will do the signs.” 281 4:18
The Return of Moses 282
So Moses went back 283 to his father-in-law Jethro and said to him, “Let me go, so that I may return 284 to my relatives 285 in Egypt and see 286 if they are still alive.” Jethro said to Moses, “Go in peace.” 4:19 The Lord said to Moses in Midian, “Go back 287 to Egypt, because all the men who were seeking your life are dead.” 288 4:20 Then Moses took 289 his wife and sons 290 and put them on a donkey and headed back 291 to the land of Egypt, and Moses took the staff of God in his hand. 4:21 The Lord said 292 to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, 293 see that you 294 do before Pharaoh all the wonders I have put under your control. 295 But I will harden 296 his heart 297 and 298 he will not let the people go. 4:22 You must say 299 to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says 300 the Lord, “Israel is my son, my firstborn, 301 4:23 and I said to you, ‘Let my son go that he may serve 302 me,’ but since you have refused to let him go, 303 I will surely kill 304 your son, your firstborn!”’”
4:24 Now on the way, at a place where they stopped for the night, 305 the Lord met Moses and sought to kill him. 306 4:25 But Zipporah took a flint knife, cut off the foreskin of her son and touched it to Moses’ feet, 307 and said, “Surely you are a bridegroom of blood 308 to me.” 4:26 So the Lord 309 let him alone. (At that time 310 she said, “A bridegroom of blood,” referring to 311 the circumcision.)
4:27 The Lord said 312 to Aaron, “Go to the wilderness to meet Moses. So he went and met him at the mountain of God 313 and greeted him with a kiss. 314 4:28 Moses told Aaron all the words of the Lord who had 315 sent him and all the signs that he had commanded him. 4:29 Then Moses and Aaron went and brought together all the Israelite elders. 316 4:30 Aaron spoke 317 all the words that the Lord had spoken to Moses and did the signs in the sight of the people, 4:31 and the people believed. When they heard 318 that the Lord had attended to 319 the Israelites and that he had seen their affliction, they bowed down close to the ground. 320 5:1
Opposition to the Plan of God 321
Afterward Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said, “Thus says the Lord, 322 the God of Israel, ‘Release 323 my people so that they may hold a pilgrim feast 324 to me in the desert.’” 5:2 But Pharaoh said, “Who is the Lord 325 that 326 I should obey him 327 by releasing 328 Israel? I do not know the Lord, 329 and I will not release Israel!” 5:3 And they said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Let us go a three-day journey 330 into the desert so that we may sacrifice 331 to the Lord our God, so that he does not strike us with plague or the sword.” 332 5:4 The king of Egypt said to them, “Moses and Aaron, why do you cause the people to refrain from their work? 333 Return to your labor!” 5:5 Pharaoh was thinking, 334 “The people of the land are now many, and you are giving them rest from their labor.”
5:6 That same day Pharaoh commanded 335 the slave masters and foremen 336 who were 337 over the people: 338 5:7 “You must no longer 339 give straw to the people for making bricks 340 as before. 341 Let them go 342 and collect straw for themselves. 5:8 But you must require 343 of them the same quota of bricks that they were making before. 344 Do not reduce it, for they are slackers. 345 That is why they are crying, ‘Let us go sacrifice to our God.’ 5:9 Make the work harder 346 for the men so they will keep at it 347 and pay no attention to lying words!” 348
5:10 So the slave masters of the people and their foremen went to the Israelites and said, 349 “Thus says Pharaoh: ‘I am not giving 350 you straw. 5:11 You 351 go get straw for yourselves wherever you can 352 find it, because there will be no reduction at all in your workload.’” 5:12 So the people spread out 353 through all the land of Egypt to collect stubble for straw. 5:13 The slave masters were pressuring 354 them, saying, “Complete 355 your work for each day, just like when there was straw!” 5:14 The Israelite foremen whom Pharaoh’s slave masters had set over them were beaten and were asked, 356 “Why did you not complete your requirement for brickmaking as in the past – both yesterday and today?” 357 5:15 358
The Israelite foremen went and cried out to Pharaoh, “Why are you treating 359 your servants this way? 5:16 No straw is given to your servants, but we are told, 360 ‘Make bricks!’ Your servants are even 361 being beaten, but the fault 362 is with your people.”
5:17 But Pharaoh replied, 363 “You are slackers! Slackers! 364 That is why you are saying, ‘Let us go sacrifice to the Lord.’ 5:18 So now, get back to work! 365 You will not be given straw, but you must still produce 366 your quota 367 of bricks!” 5:19 The Israelite foremen saw 368 that they 369 were in trouble when they were told, 370 “You must not reduce the daily quota of your bricks.”
5:20 When they went out from Pharaoh, they encountered Moses and Aaron standing there to meet them, 371 5:21 and they said to them, “May the Lord look on you and judge, 372 because you have made us stink 373 in the opinion of 374 Pharaoh and his servants, 375 so that you have given them an excuse to kill us!” 376 5:22
The Assurance of Deliverance 377
Moses returned 378 to the Lord, and said, “Lord, 379 why have you caused trouble for this people? 380 Why did you ever 381 send me? 5:23 From the time I went to speak to Pharaoh in your name, he has caused trouble 382 for this people, and you have certainly not rescued 383 them!” 384
6:1 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Now you will see what I will do to Pharaoh, 385 for compelled by my strong hand 386 he will release them, and by my strong hand he will drive them out of his land.” 387
6:2 God spoke 388 to Moses and said to him, “I am the Lord. 389 6:3 I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as 390 God Almighty, 391 but by 392 my name ‘the Lord’ 393 I was not known to them. 394 6:4 I also established my covenant with them 395 to give them the land of Canaan, where they were living as resident foreigners. 396 6:5 I 397 have also heard 398 the groaning of the Israelites, whom the Egyptians are enslaving, 399 and I have remembered my covenant. 400 6:6 Therefore, tell the Israelites, ‘I am the Lord. I will bring you out 401 from your enslavement to 402 the Egyptians, I will rescue you from the hard labor they impose, 403 and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments. 6:7 I will take you to myself for a people, and I will be your God. 404 Then you will know that I am the Lord your God, who brought you out from your enslavement to 405 the Egyptians. 6:8 I will bring you to the land I swore to give 406 to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob – and I will give it to you 407 as a possession. I am the Lord!’” 6:9 408
Moses told this 409 to the Israelites, but they did not listen to him 410 because of their discouragement 411 and hard labor. 6:10 Then the Lord said to Moses, 6:11 “Go, tell Pharaoh king of Egypt that he must release 412 the Israelites from his land.” 6:12 But Moses replied to 413 the Lord, “If the Israelites did not listen to me, then 414 how will Pharaoh listen to me, since 415 I speak with difficulty?” 416
6:13 The Lord spoke 417 to Moses and Aaron and gave them a charge 418 for the Israelites and Pharaoh king of Egypt to bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt. 6:14
The Ancestry of the Deliverer 419
These are the heads of their fathers’ households: 420
The sons 421 of Reuben, the firstborn son of Israel, were Hanoch and Pallu, Hezron and Carmi. These were the clans 422 of Reuben.
6:15 The sons of Simeon were Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jakin, Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman. These were the clans of Simeon.
6:16 Now these are the names of the sons of Levi, according to their records: 423 Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. (The length of Levi’s life was 137 years.)
6:17 The sons of Gershon, by their families, were Libni and Shimei.
6:18 The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. (The length of Kohath’s life was 133 years.)
6:19 The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi. These were the clans of Levi, according to their records.
6:20 Amram married 424 his father’s sister Jochebed, and she bore him Aaron and Moses. (The length of Amram’s life was 137 years.)
6:21 The sons of Izhar were Korah, Nepheg, and Zikri.
6:22 The sons of Uzziel were Mishael, Elzaphan, and Sithri.
6:23 Aaron married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab and sister of Nahshon, and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.
6:24 The sons of Korah were Assir, Elkanah, and Abiasaph. These were the Korahite clans.
6:25 Now Eleazar son of Aaron married one of the daughters of Putiel and she bore him Phinehas.
These are the heads of the fathers’ households 425 of Levi according to their clans.
6:26 It was the same Aaron and Moses to whom the Lord said, “Bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments.” 426 6:27 They were the men who were speaking to Pharaoh king of Egypt, in order to bring the Israelites out of Egypt. It was the same Moses and Aaron. 6:28
The Authentication of the Word 427
When 428 the Lord spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt, 6:29 he said to him, 429 “I am the Lord. Tell 430 Pharaoh king of Egypt all that 431 I am telling 432 you.” 6:30 But Moses said before the Lord, “Since I speak with difficulty, 433 why should Pharaoh listen to me?”
7:1 So the Lord said to Moses, “See, I have made you like God 434 to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet. 435 7:2 You are to speak 436 everything I command you, 437 and your brother Aaron is to tell Pharaoh that he must release 438 the Israelites from his land. 7:3 But I will harden 439 Pharaoh’s heart, and although I will multiply 440 my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt, 7:4 Pharaoh will not listen to you. 441 I will reach into 442 Egypt and bring out my regiments, 443 my people the Israelites, from the land of Egypt with great acts of judgment. 7:5 Then 444 the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord, when I extend my hand 445 over Egypt and bring the Israelites out from among them.
7:6 And Moses and Aaron did so; they did just as the Lord commanded them. 7:7 Now Moses was eighty years old and Aaron was eighty-three years old when they spoke to Pharaoh.
7:8 The Lord said 446 to Moses and Aaron, 447 7:9 “When Pharaoh says to you, ‘Do 448 a miracle,’ and you say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down 449 before Pharaoh,’ it will become 450 a snake.” 7:10 When 451 Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh, they did so, just as the Lord had commanded them – Aaron threw 452 down his staff before Pharaoh and his servants and it became a snake. 453 7:11 Then Pharaoh also summoned wise men and sorcerers, 454 and the magicians 455 of Egypt by their secret arts 456 did the same thing. 7:12 Each man 457 threw down his staff, and the staffs became snakes. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs. 7:13 Yet Pharaoh’s heart became hard, 458 and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 7:14
The First Blow: Water to Blood 459
The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is hard; 460 he refuses to release 461 the people. 7:15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning when 462 he goes out to the water. Position yourself 463 to meet him by the edge of the Nile, 464 and take 465 in your hand the staff 466 that was turned into a snake. 7:16 Tell him, ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to you to say, 467 “Release my people, that they may serve me 468 in the desert!” But until now 469 you have not listened. 470 7:17 Thus says the Lord: “By this you will know that I am the Lord: I am going to strike 471 the water of the Nile with the staff that is in my hand, and it will be turned into blood. 472 7:18 Fish 473 in the Nile will die, the Nile will stink, and the Egyptians will be unable 474 to drink water from the Nile.”’” 7:19 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your staff and stretch out your hand over Egypt’s waters – over their rivers, over their canals, 475 over their ponds, and over all their reservoirs 476 – so that it becomes 477 blood.’ There will be blood everywhere in 478 the land of Egypt, even in wooden and stone containers.” 7:20 Moses and Aaron did so, 479 just as the Lord had commanded. Moses raised 480 the staff 481 and struck the water that was in the Nile right before the eyes 482 of Pharaoh and his servants, 483 and all the water that was in the Nile was turned to blood. 484 7:21 When the fish 485 that were in the Nile died, the Nile began 486 to stink, so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood 487 everywhere in the land of Egypt! 7:22 But the magicians of Egypt did the same 488 by their secret arts, and so 489 Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 490 and he refused to listen to Moses and Aaron 491 – just as the Lord had predicted. 7:23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house. He did not pay any attention to this. 492 7:24 All the Egyptians dug around the Nile for water to drink, 493 because they could not drink the water of the Nile. 7:25
The Second Blow: Frogs 494
Seven full days passed 495 after the Lord struck 496 the Nile. 8:1 497 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord: “Release my people in order that they may serve me! 8:2 But if you refuse to release them, then I am going to plague 498 all your territory with frogs. 499 8:3 The Nile will swarm 500 with frogs, and they will come up and go into your house, in your bedroom, and on your bed, and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens and your kneading troughs. 501 8:4 Frogs 502 will come up against you, your people, and all your servants.”’” 503
8:5 The Lord spoke to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your hand with your staff 504 over the rivers, over the canals, and over the ponds, and bring the frogs up over the land of Egypt.’” 8:6 So Aaron extended his hand over the waters of Egypt, and frogs 505 came up and covered the land of Egypt.
8:7 The magicians did the same 506 with their secret arts and brought up frogs on the land of Egypt too. 507
8:8 Then Pharaoh summoned 508 Moses and Aaron and said, “Pray 509 to the Lord that he may take the frogs away 510 from me and my people, and I will release 511 the people that they may sacrifice 512 to the Lord.” 8:9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “You may have the honor over me 513 – when shall I pray for you, your servants, and your people, for the frogs to be removed 514 from you and your houses, so that 515 they will be left 516 only in the Nile?” 8:10 He said, “Tomorrow.” And Moses said, 517 “It will be 518 as you say, 519 so that you may know that there is no one like the Lord our God. 8:11 The frogs will depart from you, your houses, your servants, and your people; they will be left only in the Nile.”
8:12 Then Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried 520 to the Lord because of 521 the frogs that he had brought on 522 Pharaoh. 8:13 The Lord did as Moses asked 523 – the 524 frogs died out of the houses, the villages, and the fields. 8:14 The Egyptians 525 piled them in countless heaps, 526 and the land stank. 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was relief, 527 he hardened 528 his heart and did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 529 8:16
The Third Blow: Gnats 530
The Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your staff and strike the dust of the ground, and it will become 531 gnats 532 throughout all the land of Egypt.’” 8:17 They did so; Aaron extended his hand with his staff, he struck the dust of the ground, and it became gnats on people 533 and on animals. All the dust of the ground became gnats throughout all the land of Egypt. 8:18 When 534 the magicians attempted 535 to bring forth gnats by their secret arts, they could not. So there were gnats on people and on animals. 8:19 The magicians said 536 to Pharaoh, “It is the finger 537 of God!” But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 538 and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 8:20
The Fourth Blow: Flies 539
The Lord 540 said to Moses, “Get up early in the morning and position yourself before Pharaoh as he goes out to the water, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, “Release my people that they may serve me! 8:21 If you do not release 541 my people, then I am going to send 542 swarms of flies 543 on you and on your servants and on your people and in your houses. The houses of the Egyptians will be full of flies, and even the ground they stand on. 544 8:22 But on that day I will mark off 545 the land of Goshen, where my people are staying, 546 so that no swarms of flies will be there, that you may know that I am the Lord in the midst of this land. 547 8:23 I will put a division 548 between my people and your people. This sign will take place 549 tomorrow.”’” 8:24 The Lord did so; a 550 thick 551 swarm of flies came into 552 Pharaoh’s house and into the houses 553 of his servants, and throughout the whole land of Egypt the land was ruined 554 because of the swarms of flies.
8:25 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God within the land.” 555 8:26 But Moses said, “That would not be the right thing to do, 556 for the sacrifices we make 557 to the Lord our God would be an abomination 558 to the Egyptians. 559 If we make sacrifices that are an abomination to the Egyptians right before their eyes, 560 will they not stone us? 561 8:27 We must go 562 on a three-day journey 563 into the desert and sacrifice 564 to the Lord our God, just as he is telling us.” 565
8:28 Pharaoh said, “I will release you 566 so that you may sacrifice 567 to the Lord your God in the desert. Only you must not go very far. 568 Do 569 pray for me.”
8:29 Moses said, “I am going to go out 570 from you and pray to the Lord, and the swarms of flies will go away from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people tomorrow. Only do not let Pharaoh deal falsely again 571 by not releasing 572 the people to sacrifice to the Lord.” 8:30 So Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 8:31 and the Lord did as Moses asked 573 – he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people. Not one remained! 8:32 But Pharaoh hardened 574 his heart this time also and did not release the people. 9:1
The Fifth Blow: Disease 575
Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, “Release my people that they may serve me! 9:2 For if you refuse to release them 576 and continue holding them, 577 9:3 then the hand of the Lord will surely bring 578 a very terrible plague 579 on your livestock in the field, on the horses, the donkeys, the camels, 580 the herds, and the flocks. 9:4 But the Lord will distinguish 581 between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, and nothing 582 will die of all that the Israelites have.”’” 583
9:5 The Lord set 584 an appointed time, saying, “Tomorrow the Lord will do this 585 in the land.” 9:6 And the Lord did this 586 on the next day; 587 all 588 the livestock of the Egyptians 589 died, but of the Israelites’ livestock not one died. 9:7 Pharaoh sent representatives to investigate, 590 and indeed, not even one of the livestock of Israel had died. But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 591 and he did not release the people. 9:8
The Sixth Blow: Boils 592
Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot 593 from a furnace, and have Moses throw it 594 into the air while Pharaoh is watching. 595 9:9 It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt and will cause boils to break out and fester 596 on both people and animals in all the land of Egypt.” 9:10 So they took soot from a furnace and stood before Pharaoh, Moses threw it into the air, and it caused festering boils to break out on both people and animals.
9:11 The magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for boils were on the magicians and on all the Egyptians. 9:12 But the Lord hardened 597 Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted to Moses. 9:13
The Seventh Blow: Hail 598
The Lord said 599 to Moses, “Get up early in the morning, stand 600 before Pharaoh, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: “Release my people so that they may serve me! 9:14 For this time I will send all my plagues 601 on your very self 602 and on your servants and your people, so that you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth. 9:15 For by now I could have stretched out 603 my hand and struck you and your people with plague, and you would have been destroyed 604 from the earth. 9:16 But 605 for this purpose I have caused you to stand: 606 to show you 607 my strength, and so that my name may be declared 608 in all the earth. 9:17 You are still exalting 609 yourself against my people by 610 not releasing them. 9:18 I am going to cause very severe hail to rain down 611 about this time tomorrow, such hail as has never occurred 612 in Egypt from the day it was founded 613 until now. 9:19 So now, send instructions 614 to gather 615 your livestock and all your possessions in the fields to a safe place. Every person 616 or animal caught 617 in the field and not brought into the house – the hail will come down on them, and they will die!”’”
9:20 Those 618 of Pharaoh’s servants who feared the word of the Lord hurried to bring their 619 servants and livestock into the houses, 9:21 but those 620 who did not take 621 the word of the Lord seriously left their servants and their cattle 622 in the field.
9:22 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sky 623 that there may be 624 hail in all the land of Egypt, on people and on animals, 625 and on everything that grows 626 in the field in the land of Egypt.” 9:23 When Moses extended 627 his staff toward the sky, the Lord 628 sent thunder 629 and hail, and fire fell to the earth; 630 so the Lord caused hail to rain down on the land of Egypt. 9:24 Hail fell 631 and fire mingled 632 with the hail; the hail was so severe 633 that there had not been any like it 634 in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation. 9:25 The hail struck everything in the open fields, both 635 people and animals, throughout all the land of Egypt. The hail struck everything that grows 636 in the field, and it broke all the trees of the field to pieces. 9:26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived, was there no hail.
9:27 So Pharaoh sent and summoned Moses and Aaron and said to them, “I have sinned this time! 637 The Lord is righteous, and I and my people are guilty. 638 9:28 Pray to the Lord, for the mighty 639 thunderings and hail are too much! 640 I will release you and you will stay no longer.” 641
9:29 Moses said to him, “When I leave the city 642 I will spread my hands to the Lord, the thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth belongs to the Lord. 643 9:30 But as for you 644 and your servants, I know that you do not yet fear 645 the Lord God.”
9:31 (Now the 646 flax and the barley were struck 647 by the hail, 648 for the barley had ripened 649 and the flax 650 was in bud. 9:32 But the wheat and the spelt 651 were not struck, for they are later crops.) 652
9:33 So Moses left Pharaoh, went out of the city, and spread out his hands to the Lord, and the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain stopped pouring on the earth. 9:34 When Pharaoh saw 653 that the rain and hail and thunder ceased, he sinned again: 654 both he and his servants hardened 655 their hearts. 9:35 So Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 656 and he did not release the Israelites, as the Lord had predicted through Moses. 10:1
The Eighth Blow: Locusts 657
The Lord said 658 to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, in order to display 659 these signs of mine before him, 660 10:2 and in order that in the hearing of your son and your grandson you may tell 661 how I made fools 662 of the Egyptians 663 and about 664 my signs that I displayed 665 among them, so that you may know 666 that I am the Lord.”
10:3 So Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh and told him, “Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: ‘How long do you refuse 667 to humble yourself before me? 668 Release my people so that they may serve me! 10:4 But if you refuse to release my people, I am going to bring 669 locusts 670 into your territory 671 tomorrow. 10:5 They will cover 672 the surface 673 of the earth, so that you 674 will be unable to see the ground. They will eat the remainder of what escaped 675 – what is left over 676 for you – from the hail, and they will eat every tree that grows for you from the field. 10:6 They will fill your houses, the houses of your servants, and all the houses of Egypt, such as 677 neither 678 your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen since they have been 679 in the land until this day!’” Then Moses 680 turned and went out from Pharaoh.
10:7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long 681 will this man be a menace 682 to us? Release the people so that they may serve the Lord their God. Do you not know 683 that Egypt is destroyed?”
10:8 So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve the Lord your God. Exactly who is going with you?” 684 10:9 Moses said, “We will go with our young and our old, with our sons and our daughters, and with our sheep and our cattle we will go, because we are to hold 685 a pilgrim feast for the Lord.”
10:10 He said to them, “The Lord will need to be with you 686 if I release you and your dependents! 687 Watch out! 688 Trouble is right in front of you! 689 10:11 No! 690 Go, you men 691 only, and serve the Lord, for that 692 is what you want.” 693 Then Moses and Aaron 694 were driven 695 out of Pharaoh’s presence.
10:12 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand over the land of Egypt for 696 the locusts, that they may come up over the land of Egypt and eat everything that grows 697 in the ground, everything that the hail has left.” 10:13 So Moses extended his staff over the land of Egypt, and then the Lord 698 brought 699 an east wind on the land all that day and all night. 700 The morning came, 701 and the east wind had brought up 702 the locusts! 10:14 The locusts went up over all the land of Egypt and settled down in all the territory 703 of Egypt. It was very severe; 704 there had been no locusts like them before, nor will there be such ever again. 705 10:15 They covered 706 the surface 707 of all the ground, so that the ground became dark with them, 708 and they ate all the vegetation of the ground and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Nothing green remained on the trees or on anything that grew in the fields throughout the whole land of Egypt. 10:16 709
Then Pharaoh quickly 710 summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “I have sinned 711 against the Lord your God and against you! 10:17 So now, forgive my sin this time only, and pray to the Lord your God that he would only 712 take this death 713 away from me.” 10:18 Moses 714 went out 715 from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 10:19 and the Lord turned a very strong west wind, 716 and it picked up the locusts and blew them into the Red Sea. 717 Not one locust remained in all the territory of Egypt. 10:20 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites. 10:21
The Ninth Blow: Darkness 718
The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward heaven 719 so that there may be 720 darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness so thick it can be felt.” 721
10:22 So Moses extended his hand toward heaven, and there was absolute darkness 722 throughout the land of Egypt for three days. 723 10:23 No one 724 could see 725 another person, and no one could rise from his place for three days. But the Israelites had light in the places where they lived.
10:24 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and said, “Go, serve the Lord – only your flocks and herds will be detained. Even your families 726 may go with you.”
10:25 But Moses said, “Will you also 727 provide us 728 with sacrifices and burnt offerings that we may present them 729 to the Lord our God? 10:26 Our livestock must 730 also go with us! Not a hoof is to be left behind! For we must take 731 these animals 732 to serve the Lord our God. Until we arrive there, we do not know what we must use to serve the Lord.” 733
10:27 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he was not willing to release them. 10:28 Pharaoh said to him, “Go from me! 734 Watch out for yourself! Do not appear before me again, 735 for when 736 you see my face you will die!” 10:29 Moses said, “As you wish! 737 I will not see your face again.” 738 11:1
The Tenth Blow: Death 739
The Lord said to Moses, “I will bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt; after that he will release you from this place. When he releases you, 740 he will drive you out completely 741 from this place. 11:2 Instruct 742 the people that each man and each woman is to request 743 from his or her neighbor 744 items of silver and gold.” 745
11:3 (Now the Lord granted the people favor with 746 the Egyptians. Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, respected by Pharaoh’s servants and by the Egyptian people.) 747
11:4 Moses said, “Thus says the Lord: ‘About midnight 748 I will go throughout Egypt, 749 11:5 and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh 750 who sits on his throne, to the firstborn son of the slave girl who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 11:6 There will be a great cry throughout the whole land of Egypt, such as there has never been, 751 nor ever will be again. 752 11:7 But against any of the Israelites not even a dog will bark 753 against either people or animals, 754 so that you may know that the Lord distinguishes 755 between Egypt and Israel.’ 11:8 All these your servants will come down to me and bow down 756 to me, saying, ‘Go, you and all the people who follow 757 you,’ and after that I will go out.” Then Moses 758 went out from Pharaoh in great anger.
11:9 The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not listen to you, so that my wonders 759 may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”
11:10 So Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, but the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites from his land. 12:1
The Institution of the Passover 760
The Lord said 761 to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 762 12:2 “This month is to be your beginning of months; it will be your first month of the year. 763 12:3 Tell the whole community of Israel, ‘In the tenth day of this month they each 764 must take a lamb 765 for themselves according to their families 766 – a lamb for each household. 767 12:4 If any household is too small 768 for a lamb, 769 the man 770 and his next-door neighbor 771 are to take 772 a lamb according to the number of people – you will make your count for the lamb according to how much each one can eat. 773 12:5 Your lamb must be 774 perfect, 775 a male, one year old; 776 you may take 777 it from the sheep or from the goats. 12:6 You must care for it 778 until the fourteenth day of this month, and then the whole community 779 of Israel will kill it around sundown. 780 12:7 They will take some of the blood and put it on the two side posts and top of the doorframe of the houses where they will eat it. 12:8 They will eat the meat the same night; 781 they will eat it roasted over the fire with bread made without yeast 782 and with bitter herbs. 12:9 Do not eat it raw 783 or boiled in water, but roast it over the fire with its head, its legs, and its entrails. 12:10 You must leave nothing until morning, but you must burn with fire whatever remains of it until morning. 12:11 This is how you are to eat it – dressed to travel, 784 your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. You are to eat it in haste. It is the Lord’s Passover. 785
12:12 I will pass through 786 the land of Egypt in the same 787 night, and I will attack 788 all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both of humans and of animals, 789 and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment. 790 I am the Lord. 12:13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, so that when I see 791 the blood I will pass over you, 792 and this plague 793 will not fall on you to destroy you 794 when I attack 795 the land of Egypt. 796
12:14 This day will become 797 a memorial 798 for you, and you will celebrate it as a festival 799 to the Lord – you will celebrate it perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 800 12:15 For seven days 801 you must eat 802 bread made without yeast. 803 Surely 804 on the first day you must put away yeast from your houses because anyone who eats bread made with yeast 805 from the first day to the seventh day will be cut off 806 from Israel.
12:16 On the first day there will be a holy convocation, 807 and on the seventh day there will be a holy convocation for you. You must do no work of any kind 808 on them, only what every person will eat – that alone may be prepared for you. 12:17 So you will keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because on this very 809 day I brought your regiments 810 out from the land of Egypt, and so you must keep this day perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 811 12:18 In the first month, 812 from the fourteenth day of the month, in the evening, you will eat bread made without yeast until the twenty-first day of the month in the evening. 12:19 For seven days 813 yeast must not be found in your houses, for whoever eats what is made with yeast – that person 814 will be cut off from the community of Israel, whether a foreigner 815 or one born in the land. 12:20 You will not eat anything made with yeast; in all the places where you live you must eat bread made without yeast.’”
12:21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel, and told them, “Go and select 816 for yourselves a lamb or young goat 817 for your families, and kill the Passover animals. 818 12:22 Take a branch of hyssop, 819 dip it in the blood that is in the basin, 820 and apply to the top of the doorframe and the two side posts some of the blood that is in the basin. Not one of you is to go out 821 the door of his house until morning. 12:23 For the Lord will pass through to strike Egypt, and when he sees 822 the blood on the top of the doorframe and the two side posts, then the Lord will pass over the door, and he will not permit the destroyer 823 to enter your houses to strike you. 824 12:24 You must observe this event as an ordinance for you and for your children forever. 12:25 When you enter the land that the Lord will give to you, just as he said, you must observe 825 this ceremony. 12:26 When your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ 826 – 12:27 then you will say, ‘It is the sacrifice 827 of the Lord’s Passover, when he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when he struck 828 Egypt and delivered our households.’” The people bowed down low 829 to the ground, 12:28 and the Israelites went away and did exactly as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron. 830 12:29
The Deliverance from Egypt 831
It happened 832 at midnight – the Lord attacked all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the prison, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 12:30 Pharaoh got up 833 in the night, 834 along with all his servants and all Egypt, and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was no house 835 in which there was not someone dead. 12:31 Pharaoh 836 summoned Moses and Aaron in the night and said, “Get up, get out 837 from among my people, both you and the Israelites! Go, serve the Lord as you have requested! 838 12:32 Also, take your flocks and your herds, just as you have requested, and leave. But bless me also.” 839
12:33 The Egyptians were urging 840 the people on, in order to send them out of the land quickly, 841 for they were saying, “We are all dead!” 12:34 So the people took their dough before the yeast was added, 842 with their kneading troughs bound up in their clothing on their shoulders. 12:35 Now the Israelites had done 843 as Moses told them – they had requested from the Egyptians 844 silver and gold items and clothing. 12:36 The Lord 845 gave the people favor 846 in the sight of the Egyptians, and they gave them whatever they wanted, 847 and so they plundered Egypt. 848
12:37 The Israelites journeyed 849 from Rameses 850 to Sukkoth. There were about 600,000 men 851 on foot, plus their dependants. 852 12:38 A mixed multitude 853 also went up with them, and flocks and herds – a very large number of cattle. 854 12:39 They baked cakes of bread without yeast using the dough they had brought from Egypt, for it was made without yeast – because they were thrust out 855 of Egypt and were not able to delay, they 856 could not prepare 857 food for themselves either.
12:40 Now the length of time the Israelites lived in Egypt was 430 years. 858 12:41 At the end of the 430 years, on the very day, all the regiments 859 of the Lord went out of the land of Egypt. 12:42 It was a night of vigil for the Lord to bring them out from the land of Egypt, 860 and so 861 on this night all Israel is to keep the vigil 862 to the Lord for generations to come. 12:43
Participation in the Passover 863
The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover. No foreigner may 864 share in eating it. 865 12:44 But everyone’s servant who is bought for money, after you have circumcised him, may eat it. 12:45 A foreigner and a hired worker must not eat it. 12:46 It must be eaten in one house; you must not bring any of the meat outside the house, and you must not break a bone of it. 12:47 The whole community of Israel must observe it.
12:48 “When a foreigner lives 866 with you and wants to observe the Passover to the Lord, all his males must be circumcised, 867 and then he may approach and observe it, and he will be like one who is born in the land 868 – but no uncircumcised person may eat of it. 12:49 The same law will apply 869 to the person who is native-born and to the foreigner who lives among you.”
12:50 So all the Israelites did exactly as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron. 870 12:51 And on this very day the Lord brought the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments. 13:1
The Law of the Firstborn 871
The Lord spoke 872 to Moses: 13:2 “Set apart 873 to me every firstborn male – the first offspring of every womb 874 among the Israelites, whether human or animal; it is mine.” 875
13:3 Moses said to the people, “Remember 876 this day on which you came out from Egypt, from the place where you were enslaved, 877 for the Lord brought you out of there 878 with a mighty hand – and no bread made with yeast may be eaten. 879 13:4 On this day, 880 in the month of Abib, 881 you are going out. 882
13:5 When 883 the Lord brings you to the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which he swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, 884 then you will keep 885 this ceremony 886 in this month. 13:6 For seven days 887 you must eat 888 bread made without yeast, and on the seventh day there is to be 889 a festival to the Lord. 13:7 Bread made without yeast must be eaten 890 for seven days; 891 no bread made with yeast shall be seen 892 among you, and you must have no yeast among you within any of your borders.
13:8 You are to tell your son 893 on that day, 894 ‘It is 895 because of what 896 the Lord did for me when I came out of Egypt.’ 13:9 897 It 898 will be a sign 899 for you on your hand and a memorial 900 on your forehead, 901 so that the law of the Lord may be 902 in your mouth, 903 for 904 with a mighty hand the Lord brought you out of Egypt. 13:10 So you must keep 905 this ordinance at its appointed time from year to year. 906
13:11 When the Lord brings you 907 into the land of the Canaanites, 908 as he swore to you and to your fathers, and gives it 909 to you, 13:12 then you must give over 910 to the Lord the first offspring of every womb. 911 Every firstling 912 of a beast that you have 913 – the males will be the Lord’s. 914 13:13 Every firstling 915 of a donkey you must redeem 916 with a lamb, and if you do not redeem it, then you must break its neck. 917 Every firstborn of 918 your sons you must redeem. 13:14 919
In the future, 920 when your son asks you 921 ‘What is this?’ 922 you are to tell him, ‘With a mighty hand 923 the Lord brought us out from Egypt, from the land of slavery. 924 13:15 When Pharaoh stubbornly refused 925 to release us, the Lord killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of people to the firstborn of animals. 926 That is why I am sacrificing 927 to the Lord the first male offspring of every womb, but all my firstborn sons I redeem.’ 13:16 It will be for a sign on your hand and for frontlets 928 on your forehead, for with a mighty hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt.” 929 13:17
The Leading of God 930
When Pharaoh released 931 the people, God did not lead them 932 by the way to the land 933 of the Philistines, 934 although 935 that was nearby, for God said, 936 “Lest 937 the people change their minds 938 and return to Egypt when they experience 939 war.” 13:18 So God brought the people around by the way of the desert to the Red Sea, 940 and the Israelites went up from the land of Egypt prepared for battle. 941
13:19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for Joseph 942 had made the Israelites solemnly swear, 943 “God will surely attend 944 to you, and you will carry 945 my bones up from this place with you.”
13:20 They journeyed from Sukkoth and camped in Etham, on the edge of the desert. 13:21 Now the Lord was going before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them in the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, 946 so that they could 947 travel day or night. 948 13:22 He did not remove the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night from before the people. 949 14:1
The Victory at the Red Sea 950
The Lord spoke to Moses: 14:2 “Tell the Israelites that they must turn and camp 951 before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea; you are to camp by the sea before Baal Zephon opposite it. 952 14:3 Pharaoh will think 953 regarding the Israelites, ‘They are wandering around confused 954 in the land – the desert has closed in on them.’ 955 14:4 I will harden 956 Pharaoh’s heart, and he will chase after them. I will gain honor 957 because of Pharaoh and because of all his army, and the Egyptians will know 958 that I am the Lord.” So this is what they did. 959
14:5 When it was reported 960 to the king of Egypt that the people had fled, 961 the heart of Pharaoh and his servants was turned against the people, and the king and his servants said, 962 “What in the world have we done? 963 For we have released the people of Israel 964 from serving us!” 14:6 Then he prepared 965 his chariots and took his army 966 with him. 14:7 He took six hundred select 967 chariots, and all the rest of the chariots of Egypt, 968 and officers 969 on all of them.
14:8 But the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he chased after the Israelites. Now the Israelites were going out defiantly. 970 14:9 The Egyptians chased after them, and all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh and his horsemen and his army overtook them camping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-Zephon. 14:10 When 971 Pharaoh got closer, 972 the Israelites looked up, 973 and there were the Egyptians marching after them, 974 and they were terrified. 975 The Israelites cried out to the Lord, 976 14:11 and they said to Moses, “Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the desert? 977 What in the world 978 have you done to us by bringing 979 us out of Egypt? 14:12 Isn’t this what we told you 980 in Egypt, ‘Leave us alone so that we can serve the Egyptians, 981 because it is better for us to serve 982 the Egyptians than to die in the desert!’” 983
14:13 Moses said to the people, “Do not fear! 984 Stand firm 985 and see 986 the salvation 987 of the Lord that he will provide 988 for you today; for the Egyptians that you see today you will never, ever see again. 989 14:14 The Lord 990 will fight for you, and you can be still.” 991
14:15 The Lord said to Moses, “Why do you cry out to me? Tell the Israelites to move on. 992 14:16 And as for you, 993 lift up your staff and extend your hand toward the sea and divide it, so that 994 the Israelites may go through the middle of the sea on dry ground. 14:17 And as for me, I am going to harden 995 the hearts of the Egyptians so that 996 they will come after them, that I may be honored 997 because 998 of Pharaoh and his army and his chariots and his horsemen. 14:18 And the Egyptians will know 999 that I am the Lord when I have gained my honor 1000 because of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.”
14:19 The angel of God, who was going before the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them, and the pillar 1001 of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them. 14:20 It came between the Egyptian camp and the Israelite camp; it was a dark cloud 1002 and it lit up the night so that one camp did not come near the other 1003 the whole night. 1004 14:21 Moses stretched out his hand toward the sea, and the Lord drove the sea apart 1005 by a strong east wind all that night, and he made the sea into dry land, and the water was divided. 14:22 So the Israelites went through the middle of the sea on dry ground, the water forming a wall 1006 for them on their right and on their left.
14:23 The Egyptians chased them and followed them into the middle of the sea – all the horses of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen. 14:24 In the morning watch 1007 the Lord looked down 1008 on the Egyptian army 1009 through the pillar of fire and cloud, and he threw the Egyptian army 1010 into a panic. 1011 14:25 He jammed 1012 the wheels of their chariots so that they had difficulty driving, 1013 and the Egyptians said, “Let’s flee 1014 from Israel, for the Lord fights 1015 for them against Egypt!”
14:26 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sea, so that the waters may flow 1016 back on the Egyptians, on their chariots, and on their horsemen!” 14:27 So Moses extended his hand toward the sea, and the sea returned to its normal state 1017 when the sun began to rise. 1018 Now the Egyptians were fleeing 1019 before it, but the Lord overthrew 1020 the Egyptians in the middle of the sea. 14:28 The water returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen and all the army of Pharaoh that was coming after the Israelites into the sea 1021 – not so much as one of them survived! 1022 14:29 But the Israelites walked on dry ground in the middle of the sea, the water forming a wall for them on their right and on their left. 14:30 So the Lord saved 1023 Israel on that day from the power 1024 of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead 1025 on the shore of the sea. 14:31 When Israel saw 1026 the great power 1027 that the Lord had exercised 1028 over the Egyptians, they 1029 feared the Lord, and they believed in 1030 the Lord and in his servant Moses. 1031 15:1
The Song of Triumph 1032
Then Moses and the Israelites sang 1033 this song to the Lord. They said, 1034
“I will sing 1035 to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously, 1036
the horse and its rider 1037 he has thrown into the sea.
15:2 The Lord 1038 is my strength and my song, 1039
and he has become my salvation.
This is my God, and I will praise him, 1040
my father’s God, and I will exalt him.
15:3 The Lord is a warrior, 1041
the Lord is his name. 1042
15:4 The chariots of Pharaoh 1043 and his army he has thrown into the sea,
and his chosen 1044 officers were drowned 1045 in the Red Sea.
15:5 The depths have covered them, 1046
they went down to the bottom 1047 like a stone.
15:6 Your right hand, O Lord, was majestic 1048 in power,
your right hand, O Lord, shattered the enemy.
15:7 In the abundance of your majesty 1049 you have overthrown 1050
those who rise up against you. 1051
You sent forth 1052 your wrath; 1053
it consumed them 1054 like stubble.
15:8 By the blast of your nostrils 1055 the waters were piled up,
the flowing water stood upright like a heap, 1056
and the deep waters were solidified in the heart of the sea.
15:9 The enemy said, ‘I will chase, 1057 I will overtake,
I will divide the spoil;
my desire 1058 will be satisfied on them.
I will draw 1059 my sword, my hand will destroy them.’ 1060
15:10 But 1061 you blew with your breath, and 1062 the sea covered them.
They sank 1063 like lead in the mighty waters.
15:11 Who is like you, 1064 O Lord, among the gods? 1065
Who is like you? – majestic in holiness, fearful in praises, 1066 working wonders?
15:12 You stretched out your right hand,
the earth swallowed them. 1067
15:13 By your loyal love you will lead 1068 the people whom 1069 you have redeemed;
you will guide 1070 them by your strength to your holy dwelling place.
15:14 The nations will hear 1071 and tremble;
anguish 1072 will seize 1073 the inhabitants of Philistia.
15:15 Then the chiefs of Edom will be terrified, 1074
trembling will seize 1075 the leaders of Moab,
and the inhabitants of Canaan will shake.
15:16 Fear and dread 1076 will fall 1077 on them;
by the greatness 1078 of your arm they will be as still as stone 1079
until 1080 your people pass by, O Lord,
until the people whom you have bought 1081 pass by.
15:17 You will bring them in 1082 and plant them in the mountain 1083 of your inheritance,
in the place you made 1084 for your residence, O Lord,
the sanctuary, O Lord, that your hands have established.
15:18 The Lord will reign forever and ever!
15:19 For the horses of Pharaoh came with his chariots and his footmen into the sea,
and the Lord brought back the waters of the sea on them,
but the Israelites walked on dry land in the middle of the sea.”
15:20 Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a hand-drum in her hand, and all the women went out after her with hand-drums and with dances. 1085 15:21 Miriam sang in response 1086 to them, “Sing to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously; the horse and its rider he has thrown into the sea.” 1087 15:22
The Bitter Water 1088
Then Moses led Israel to journey 1089 away from the Red Sea. They went out to the Desert of Shur, walked for three days 1090 into the desert, and found no water. 15:23 Then they came to Marah, 1091 but they were not able to drink 1092 the waters of Marah, because 1093 they were bitter. 1094 (That is 1095 why its name was 1096 Marah.)
15:24 So the people murmured 1097 against Moses, saying, “What can 1098 we drink?” 15:25 He cried out to the Lord, and the Lord showed him 1099 a tree. 1100 When Moses 1101 threw it into the water, the water became safe to drink. There the Lord 1102 made for them 1103 a binding ordinance, 1104 and there he tested 1105 them. 15:26 He said, “If you will diligently obey 1106 the Lord your God, and do what is right 1107 in his sight, and pay attention 1108 to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, then all 1109 the diseases 1110 that I brought on the Egyptians I will not bring on you, for I, the Lord, am your healer.” 1111
15:27 Then they came to Elim, 1112 where there were twelve wells of water and seventy palm trees, and they camped there by the water. 16:1
The Provision of Manna 1113
When 1114 they journeyed from Elim, the entire company 1115 of Israelites came to the Desert of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their exodus 1116 from the land of Egypt. 16:2 The entire company 1117 of Israelites murmured against Moses and Aaron in the desert. 16:3 The Israelites said to them, “If only we had died 1118 by the hand of the Lord in the land of Egypt, when we sat by 1119 the pots of meat, when we ate bread to the full, 1120 for you have brought us out into this desert to kill 1121 this whole assembly with hunger!”
16:4 Then the Lord said to Moses, “I am going to rain 1122 bread from heaven for you, and the people will go out 1123 and gather the amount for each day, so that I may test them. 1124 Will they walk in my law 1125 or not? 16:5 On the sixth day 1126 they will prepare what they bring in, and it will be twice as much as they gather every other day.” 1127
16:6 Moses and Aaron said to all the Israelites, “In the evening 1128 you will know that the Lord has brought you out of the land of Egypt, 16:7 and in the morning you will see 1129 the glory of the Lord, because he has heard 1130 your murmurings against the Lord. As for us, what are we, 1131 that you should murmur against us?”
16:8 Moses said, “You will know this 1132 when the Lord gives you 1133 meat to eat in the evening and bread in the morning to satisfy you, because the Lord has heard your murmurings that you are murmuring against him. As for us, what are we? 1134 Your murmurings are not against us, 1135 but against the Lord.”
16:9 Then Moses said to Aaron, “Tell the whole community 1136 of the Israelites, ‘Come 1137 before the Lord, because he has heard your murmurings.’”
16:10 As Aaron spoke 1138 to the whole community of the Israelites and they looked toward the desert, there the glory of the Lord 1139 appeared 1140 in the cloud, 16:11 and the Lord spoke to Moses: 16:12 “I have heard the murmurings of the Israelites. Tell them, ‘During the evening 1141 you will eat meat, 1142 and in the morning you will be satisfied 1143 with bread, so that you may know 1144 that I am the Lord your God.’” 1145
16:13 In the evening the quail 1146 came up and covered the camp, and in the morning a layer of dew was all around the camp. 16:14 When 1147 the layer of dew had evaporated, 1148 there on the surface of the desert was a thin flaky substance, 1149 thin like frost on the earth. 16:15 When 1150 the Israelites saw it, they said to one another, 1151 “What is it?” because they did not know what it was. 1152 Moses said to them, “It is the bread 1153 that the Lord has given you for food. 1154
16:16 “This is what 1155 the Lord has commanded: 1156 ‘Each person is to gather 1157 from it what he can eat, an omer 1158 per person 1159 according to the number 1160 of your people; 1161 each one will pick it up 1162 for whoever lives 1163 in his tent.’” 16:17 The Israelites did so, and they gathered – some more, some less. 16:18 When 1164 they measured with an omer, the one who gathered much had nothing left over, and the one who gathered little lacked nothing; each one had gathered what he could eat.
16:19 Moses said to them, “No one 1165 is to keep any of it 1166 until morning.” 16:20 But they did not listen to Moses; some 1167 kept part of it until morning, and it was full 1168 of worms and began to stink, and Moses was angry with them. 16:21 So they gathered it each morning, 1169 each person according to what he could eat, and when the sun got hot, it would melt. 1170 16:22 And 1171 on the sixth day they gathered twice as much food, two omers 1172 per person; 1173 and all the leaders 1174 of the community 1175 came and told 1176 Moses. 16:23 He said to them, “This is what the Lord has said: ‘Tomorrow is a time of cessation from work, 1177 a holy Sabbath 1178 to the Lord. Whatever you want to 1179 bake, bake today; 1180 whatever you want to boil, boil today; whatever is left put aside for yourselves to be kept until morning.’”
16:24 So they put it aside until the morning, just as Moses had commanded, and it did not stink, nor were there any worms in it. 16:25 Moses said, “Eat it today, for today is a Sabbath to the Lord; today you will not find it in the area. 1181 16:26 Six days you will gather it, but on the seventh day, the Sabbath, there will not be any.”
16:27 On the seventh day some of the people went out to gather it, but they found nothing. 16:28 So the Lord said to Moses, “How long do you refuse 1182 to obey my commandments and my instructions? 16:29 See, because the Lord has given you the Sabbath, that is why 1183 he is giving you food for two days on the sixth day. Each of you stay where you are; 1184 let no one 1185 go out of his place on the seventh day.” 16:30 So the people rested on the seventh day.
16:31 The house of Israel 1186 called its name “manna.” 1187 It was like coriander seed and was white, and it tasted 1188 like wafers with honey.
16:32 Moses said, “This is what 1189 the Lord has commanded: ‘Fill an omer with it to be kept 1190 for generations to come, 1191 so that they may see 1192 the food I fed you in the desert when I brought you out from the land of Egypt.’” 16:33 Moses said to Aaron, “Take a jar and put in it an omer full of manna, and place it before the Lord to be kept for generations to come.” 16:34 Just as the Lord commanded Moses, so Aaron placed it before the Testimony 1193 for safekeeping. 1194
16:35 Now the Israelites ate manna forty years, until they came to a land that was inhabited; they ate manna until they came to the border of the land of Canaan. 16:36 (Now an omer is one tenth of an ephah.) 1195 17:1
Water at Massa and Meribah 1196
The whole community 1197 of the Israelites traveled on their journey 1198 from the Desert of Sin according to the Lord’s instruction, and they pitched camp in Rephidim. 1199 Now 1200 there was no water for the people to drink. 1201 17:2 So the people contended 1202 with Moses, and they said, “Give us water to drink!” 1203 Moses said to them, “Why do you contend 1204 with me? Why do you test 1205 the Lord?” 17:3 But the people were very thirsty 1206 there for water, and they murmured against Moses and said, “Why in the world 1207 did you bring us up out of Egypt – to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?” 1208
17:4 Then Moses cried out to the Lord, “What will I do with 1209 this people? – a little more 1210 and they will stone me!” 1211 17:5 The Lord said to Moses, “Go over before the people; 1212 take with you some of the elders of Israel and take in your hand your staff with which you struck the Nile and go. 17:6 I will be standing 1213 before you there on 1214 the rock in Horeb, and you will strike 1215 the rock, and water will come out of it so that the people may drink.” 1216 And Moses did so in plain view 1217 of the elders of Israel.
17:7 He called the name of the place Massah and Meribah, because of the contending of the Israelites and because of their testing the Lord, 1218 saying, “Is the Lord among us or not?” 17:8
Victory over the Amalekites 1219
Amalek came 1220 and attacked 1221 Israel in Rephidim. 17:9 So Moses said to Joshua, “Choose some of our 1222 men and go out, fight against Amalek. Tomorrow I will stand on top of the hill with the staff of God in my hand.”
17:10 So Joshua fought against Amalek just as Moses had instructed him; 1223 and Moses and Aaron and Hur went up to the top of the hill. 17:11 Whenever Moses would raise his hands, 1224 then Israel prevailed, but whenever he would rest 1225 his hands, then Amalek prevailed. 17:12 When 1226 the hands of Moses became heavy, 1227 they took a stone and put it under him, and Aaron and Hur held up his hands, one on one side and one on the other, 1228 and so his hands were steady 1229 until the sun went down. 17:13 So Joshua destroyed 1230 Amalek and his army 1231 with the sword. 1232
17:14 The Lord said to Moses, “Write this as a memorial in the 1233 book, and rehearse 1234 it in Joshua’s hearing; 1235 for I will surely wipe out 1236 the remembrance 1237 of Amalek from under heaven. 17:15 Moses built an altar, and he called it “The Lord is my Banner,” 1238 17:16 for he said, “For a hand was lifted up to the throne of the Lord 1239 – that the Lord will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.” 1240 18:1
The Advice of Jethro 1241
Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses’ father-in-law, heard about all that God had done for Moses and for his people Israel, that 1242 the Lord had brought Israel out of Egypt. 1243
18:2 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, took Moses’ wife Zipporah after he had sent her back, 18:3 and her two sons, one of whom was named Gershom (for Moses 1244 had said, “I have been a foreigner in a foreign land”), 18:4 and the other Eliezer (for Moses had said, 1245 “The God of my father has been my help 1246 and delivered 1247 me from the sword of Pharaoh”).
18:5 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, together with Moses’ 1248 sons and his wife, came to Moses in the desert where he was camping by 1249 the mountain of God. 1250 18:6 He said 1251 to Moses, “I, your father-in-law Jethro, am coming to you, along with your wife and her two sons with her.” 18:7 Moses went out to meet his father-in-law and bowed down and kissed him; 1252 they each asked about the other’s welfare, and then they went into the tent. 18:8 Moses told his father-in-law all that the Lord had done to Pharaoh and to Egypt for Israel’s sake, and all the hardship 1253 that had come on them 1254 along the way, and how 1255 the Lord had delivered them.
18:9 Jethro rejoiced 1256 because of all the good that the Lord had done for Israel, whom he had delivered from the hand of Egypt. 18:10 Jethro said, “Blessed 1257 be the Lord who has delivered you from the hand of Egypt, and from the hand of Pharaoh, who has delivered the people from the Egyptians’ control! 1258 18:11 Now I know that the Lord is greater than all the gods, for in the thing in which they dealt proudly against them he has destroyed them.” 1259 18:12 Then Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, brought 1260 a burnt offering and sacrifices for God, 1261 and Aaron and all the elders of Israel came to eat food 1262 with the father-in-law of Moses before God.
18:13 On the next day 1263 Moses sat to judge 1264 the people, and the people stood around Moses from morning until evening. 18:14 When Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he was doing for the people, he said, “What is this 1265 that you are doing for the people? 1266 Why are you sitting by yourself, and all the people stand around you from morning until evening?”
18:15 Moses said to his father-in-law, “Because the people come to me to inquire 1267 of God. 18:16 When they have a dispute, 1268 it comes to me and I decide 1269 between a man and his neighbor, and I make known the decrees of God and his laws.” 1270
18:17 Moses’ father-in-law said to him, “What 1271 you are doing is not good! 18:18 You will surely wear out, 1272 both you and these people who are with you, for this is too 1273 heavy a burden 1274 for you; you are not able to do it by yourself. 18:19 Now listen to me, 1275 I will give you advice, and may God be with you: You be a representative for the people to God, 1276 and you bring 1277 their disputes 1278 to God; 18:20 warn 1279 them of the statutes and the laws, and make known to them the way in which they must walk 1280 and the work they must do. 1281 18:21 But you choose 1282 from the people capable men, 1283 God-fearing, 1284 men of truth, 1285 those who hate bribes, 1286 and put them over the people 1287 as rulers 1288 of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. 18:22 They will judge 1289 the people under normal circumstances, 1290 and every difficult case 1291 they will bring to you, but every small case 1292 they themselves will judge, so that 1293 you may make it easier for yourself, 1294 and they will bear the burden 1295 with you. 18:23 If you do this thing, and God so commands you, 1296 then you will be able 1297 to endure, 1298 and all these people 1299 will be able to go 1300 home 1301 satisfied.” 1302
18:24 Moses listened to 1303 his father-in-law and did everything he had said. 18:25 Moses chose capable men from all Israel, and he made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. 18:26 They judged the people under normal circumstances; the difficult cases they would bring 1304 to Moses, but every small case they would judge themselves.
18:27 Then Moses sent his father-in-law on his way, 1305 and so Jethro 1306 went 1307 to his own land. 1308