Blessing during Bondage in Egypt 1
These 2 are the names 3 of the sons of Israel 4 who entered Egypt – each man with his household 5 entered with Jacob: 1:2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, 1:3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 1:4 Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 1:5 All the people 6 who were directly descended 7 from Jacob numbered seventy. 8 But Joseph was already in Egypt, 9 1:6 and in time 10 Joseph 11 and his brothers and all that generation died. 1:7 The Israelites, 12 however, 13 were fruitful, increased greatly, multiplied, and became extremely strong, 14 so that the land was filled with them.
1:8 Then a new king, 15 who did not know about 16 Joseph, came to power 17 over Egypt. 1:9 He said 18 to his people, “Look at 19 the Israelite people, more numerous and stronger than we are! 1:10 Come, let’s deal wisely 20 with them. Otherwise 21 they will continue to multiply, 22 and if 23 a war breaks out, they will ally themselves with 24 our enemies and fight against us and leave 25 the country.”
1:11 So they put foremen 26 over the Israelites 27 to oppress 28 them with hard labor. As a result 29 they built Pithom and Rameses 30 as store cities for Pharaoh. 1:12 But the more the Egyptians 31 oppressed them, the more they multiplied and spread. 32 As a result the Egyptians loathed 33 the Israelites, 1:13 and they 34 made the Israelites serve rigorously. 35 1:14 They made their lives bitter 36 by 37 hard service with mortar and bricks and by all kinds of service 38 in the fields. Every kind of service the Israelites were required to give was rigorous. 39
1:15 The king of Egypt said 40 to the Hebrew midwives, 41 one of whom was named Shiphrah and the other Puah, 42 1:16 43 “When you assist 44 the Hebrew women in childbirth, observe at the delivery: 45 If it is a son, kill him, 46 but if it is a daughter, she may live.” 47 1:17 But 48 the midwives feared God and did not do what the king of Egypt had told them; they let the boys live. 49
1:18 Then the king of Egypt summoned 50 the midwives and said to them, “Why have you done this and let the boys live?” 51 1:19 The midwives said to Pharaoh, “Because the Hebrew 52 women are not like the Egyptian women – for the Hebrew women 53 are vigorous; they give birth before the midwife gets to them!” 54 1:20 So God treated the midwives well, 55 and the people multiplied and became very strong. 1:21 And because the midwives feared God, he made 56 households 57 for them.
1:22 Then Pharaoh commanded all his people, “All sons 58 that are born you must throw 59 into the river, but all daughters you may let live.” 60 2:1
The Birth of the Deliverer 61
A man from the household 62 of Levi married 63 a woman who was a descendant of Levi. 64 2:2 The woman became pregnant 65 and gave birth to a son. When 66 she saw that 67 he was a healthy 68 child, she hid him for three months. 2:3 But when she was no longer able to hide him, she took a papyrus basket 69 for him and sealed it with bitumen and pitch. She put the child in it and set it among the reeds along the edge of the Nile. 70 2:4 His sister stationed herself 71 at a distance to find out 72 what would 73 happen to him.
2:5 Then the daughter of Pharaoh 74 came down to wash herself 75 by the Nile, while her attendants were walking alongside the river, 76 and she saw the basket among the reeds. She sent one of her attendants, 77 took it, 78 2:6 opened it, 79 and saw the child 80 – a boy, 81 crying! 82 – and she felt compassion 83 for him and said, “This is one of the Hebrews’ children.”
2:7 Then his sister said to Pharaoh’s daughter, “Shall I go and get 84 a nursing woman 85 for you from the Hebrews, so that she may nurse 86 the child for you?” 2:8 Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Yes, do so.” 87 So the young girl 88 went and got 89 the child’s mother. 90 2:9 Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Take this child 91 and nurse him for me, and I will pay your 92 wages.” So the woman took the child and nursed him.
2:10 When the child grew older 93 she brought him to Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. 94 She named him Moses, saying, “Because I drew him from the water.” 95 2:11
The Presumption of the Deliverer 96
In those days, 97 when 98 Moses had grown up, he went out to his people 99 and observed 100 their hard labor, and he saw an Egyptian man attacking 101 a Hebrew man, one of his own people. 102 2:12 He looked this way and that 103 and saw that no one was there, 104 and then he attacked 105 the Egyptian and concealed the body 106 in the sand. 2:13 When he went out 107 the next day, 108 there were 109 two Hebrew men fighting. So he said to the one who was in the wrong, 110 “Why are you attacking 111 your fellow Hebrew?” 112
2:14 The man 113 replied, “Who made you a ruler 114 and a judge over us? Are you planning 115 to kill me like you killed that 116 Egyptian?” Then Moses was afraid, thinking, 117 “Surely what I did 118 has become known.” 2:15 When Pharaoh heard 119 about this event, 120 he sought to kill Moses. So Moses fled 121 from Pharaoh and settled in the land of Midian, 122 and he settled 123 by a certain well. 124
2:16 Now a priest of Midian had seven daughters, and they came and began to draw 125 water 126 and fill 127 the troughs in order to water their father’s flock. 2:17 When some 128 shepherds came and drove them away, 129 Moses came up and defended them 130 and then watered their flock. 2:18 So when they came home 131 to their father Reuel, 132 he asked, “Why have you come home so early 133 today?” 2:19 They said, “An Egyptian man rescued us 134 from the shepherds, 135 and he actually 136 drew water for us and watered the flock!” 2:20 He said 137 to his daughters, “So where is he? 138 Why in the world 139 did you leave the man? Call him, so that he may eat 140 a meal 141 with us.”
2:21 Moses agreed 142 to stay with the man, and he gave his daughter Zipporah to Moses in marriage. 143 2:22 When she bore 144 a son, Moses 145 named him Gershom, for he said, “I have become a resident foreigner in a foreign land.” 146 2:23
The Call of the Deliverer 147
During 148 that long period of time 149 the king of Egypt died, and the Israelites 150 groaned because of the slave labor. They cried out, and their desperate cry 151 because of their slave labor went up to God. 2:24 God heard their groaning, 152 God remembered 153 his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob, 2:25 God saw 154 the Israelites, and God understood…. 155
3:1 Now Moses 156 was shepherding the flock of his father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian, and he led the flock to the far side of the desert 157 and came to the mountain of God, to Horeb. 158 3:2 The angel of the Lord 159 appeared 160 to him in 161 a flame of fire from within a bush. 162 He looked 163 – and 164 the bush was ablaze with fire, but it was not being consumed! 165 3:3 So Moses thought, 166 “I will turn aside to see 167 this amazing 168 sight. Why does the bush not burn up?” 169 3:4 When the Lord 170 saw that 171 he had turned aside to look, God called to him from within the bush and said, “Moses, Moses!” 172 And Moses 173 said, “Here I am.” 3:5 God 174 said, “Do not approach any closer! 175 Take your sandals off your feet, for the place where you are standing is holy 176 ground.” 177 3:6 He added, “I am the God of your father, 178 the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” Then Moses hid his face, because he was afraid to look 179 at God.
3:7 The Lord said, “I have surely seen 180 the affliction of my people who are in Egypt. I have heard their cry because of their taskmasters, for I know their sorrows. 181 3:8 I have come down 182 to deliver them 183 from the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up from that land to a land that is both good and spacious, 184 to a land flowing with milk and honey, 185 to the region of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites. 186 3:9 And now indeed 187 the cry 188 of the Israelites has come to me, and I have also seen how severely the Egyptians oppress them. 189 3:10 So now go, and I will send you 190 to Pharaoh to bring my people, the Israelites, out of Egypt.”
3:11 Moses said 191 to God, 192 “Who am I, that I should go 193 to Pharaoh, or that I should bring the Israelites out of Egypt?” 3:12 He replied, 194 “Surely I will be with you, 195 and this will be the sign 196 to you that I have sent you: When you bring the people out of Egypt, you and they will serve 197 God on this mountain.”
3:13 Moses said 198 to God, “If 199 I go to the Israelites and tell them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ 200 – what should I say 201 to them?”
3:14 God said to Moses, “I am that I am.” 202 And he said, “You must say this 203 to the Israelites, ‘I am has sent me to you.’” 3:15 God also said to Moses, “You must say this to the Israelites, ‘The Lord 204 – the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob – has sent me to you. This is my name 205 forever, and this is my memorial from generation to generation.’ 206
3:16 “Go and bring together 207 the elders of Israel and tell them, ‘The Lord, the God of your fathers, 208 appeared 209 to me – the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob – saying, “I have attended carefully 210 to you and to what has been done 211 to you in Egypt, 3:17 and I have promised 212 that I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt to the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, 213 to a land flowing with milk and honey.”’
3:18 “The elders 214 will listen 215 to you, and then you and the elders of Israel must go to the king of Egypt and tell him, ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has met 216 with us. So now, let us go 217 three days’ journey into the wilderness, so that we may sacrifice 218 to the Lord our God.’ 3:19 But I know that the king of Egypt will not let you go, 219 not even under force. 220 3:20 So I will extend my hand 221 and strike Egypt with all my wonders 222 that I will do among them, and after that he will release you. 223
3:21 “I will grant this people favor with 224 the Egyptians, so that when 225 you depart you will not leave empty-handed. 3:22 Every 226 woman will ask her neighbor and the one who happens to be staying 227 in her house for items of silver and gold 228 and for clothing. You will put these articles on your sons and daughters – thus you will plunder Egypt!” 229 4:1
The Source of Sufficiency 230
Moses answered again, 231 “And if 232 they do not believe me or pay attention to me, 233 but say, ‘The Lord has not appeared to you’?” 4:2 The Lord said to him, “What is that in your hand?” He said, “A staff.” 234 4:3 The Lord 235 said, “Throw it to the ground.” So he threw it to the ground, and it became a snake, 236 and Moses ran from it. 4:4 But the Lord said to Moses, “Put out your hand and grab it by the tail” – so he put out his hand and caught it, and it became a staff in his hand 237 – 4:5 “that they may believe that the Lord, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to you.”
4:6 The Lord also said to him, “Put your hand into your robe.” 238 So he put his hand into his robe, and when he brought it out – there was his hand, 239 leprous like snow! 240 4:7 He said, “Put your hand back into your robe.” So he put his hand back into his robe, and when he brought it out from his robe – there it was, 241 restored 242 like the rest of his skin! 243 4:8 “If 244 they do not believe you or pay attention to 245 the former sign, then they may 246 believe the latter sign. 247 4:9 And if 248 they do not believe even these two signs or listen to you, 249 then take 250 some water from the Nile and pour it out on the dry ground. The water you take out of the Nile will become blood on the dry ground.” 251
4:10 Then Moses said to the Lord, 252 “O 253 my Lord, 254 I am not an eloquent man, 255 neither in the past 256 nor since you have spoken to your servant, for I am slow of speech and slow of tongue.” 257
4:11 The Lord said to him, “Who gave 258 a mouth to man, or who makes a person mute or deaf or seeing or blind? Is it not I, the Lord? 259 4:12 So now go, and I will be with your mouth 260 and will teach you 261 what you must say.” 262
4:13 But Moses said, 263 “O 264 my Lord, please send anyone else whom you wish to send!” 265
4:14 Then the Lord became angry with 266 Moses, and he said, “What about 267 your brother Aaron the Levite? 268 I know that he can speak very well. 269 Moreover, he is coming 270 to meet you, and when he sees you he will be glad in his heart. 271
4:15 “So you are to speak to him and put the words in his mouth. And as for me, I will be with your mouth 272 and with his mouth, 273 and I will teach you both 274 what you must do. 275 4:16 He 276 will speak for you to the people, and it will be as if 277 he 278 were your mouth 279 and as if you were his God. 280 4:17 You will also take in your hand this staff, with which you will do the signs.” 281 4:18
The Return of Moses 282
So Moses went back 283 to his father-in-law Jethro and said to him, “Let me go, so that I may return 284 to my relatives 285 in Egypt and see 286 if they are still alive.” Jethro said to Moses, “Go in peace.” 4:19 The Lord said to Moses in Midian, “Go back 287 to Egypt, because all the men who were seeking your life are dead.” 288 4:20 Then Moses took 289 his wife and sons 290 and put them on a donkey and headed back 291 to the land of Egypt, and Moses took the staff of God in his hand. 4:21 The Lord said 292 to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, 293 see that you 294 do before Pharaoh all the wonders I have put under your control. 295 But I will harden 296 his heart 297 and 298 he will not let the people go. 4:22 You must say 299 to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says 300 the Lord, “Israel is my son, my firstborn, 301 4:23 and I said to you, ‘Let my son go that he may serve 302 me,’ but since you have refused to let him go, 303 I will surely kill 304 your son, your firstborn!”’”
4:24 Now on the way, at a place where they stopped for the night, 305 the Lord met Moses and sought to kill him. 306 4:25 But Zipporah took a flint knife, cut off the foreskin of her son and touched it to Moses’ feet, 307 and said, “Surely you are a bridegroom of blood 308 to me.” 4:26 So the Lord 309 let him alone. (At that time 310 she said, “A bridegroom of blood,” referring to 311 the circumcision.)
4:27 The Lord said 312 to Aaron, “Go to the wilderness to meet Moses. So he went and met him at the mountain of God 313 and greeted him with a kiss. 314 4:28 Moses told Aaron all the words of the Lord who had 315 sent him and all the signs that he had commanded him. 4:29 Then Moses and Aaron went and brought together all the Israelite elders. 316 4:30 Aaron spoke 317 all the words that the Lord had spoken to Moses and did the signs in the sight of the people, 4:31 and the people believed. When they heard 318 that the Lord had attended to 319 the Israelites and that he had seen their affliction, they bowed down close to the ground. 320 5:1
Opposition to the Plan of God 321
Afterward Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said, “Thus says the Lord, 322 the God of Israel, ‘Release 323 my people so that they may hold a pilgrim feast 324 to me in the desert.’” 5:2 But Pharaoh said, “Who is the Lord 325 that 326 I should obey him 327 by releasing 328 Israel? I do not know the Lord, 329 and I will not release Israel!” 5:3 And they said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Let us go a three-day journey 330 into the desert so that we may sacrifice 331 to the Lord our God, so that he does not strike us with plague or the sword.” 332 5:4 The king of Egypt said to them, “Moses and Aaron, why do you cause the people to refrain from their work? 333 Return to your labor!” 5:5 Pharaoh was thinking, 334 “The people of the land are now many, and you are giving them rest from their labor.”
5:6 That same day Pharaoh commanded 335 the slave masters and foremen 336 who were 337 over the people: 338 5:7 “You must no longer 339 give straw to the people for making bricks 340 as before. 341 Let them go 342 and collect straw for themselves. 5:8 But you must require 343 of them the same quota of bricks that they were making before. 344 Do not reduce it, for they are slackers. 345 That is why they are crying, ‘Let us go sacrifice to our God.’ 5:9 Make the work harder 346 for the men so they will keep at it 347 and pay no attention to lying words!” 348
5:10 So the slave masters of the people and their foremen went to the Israelites and said, 349 “Thus says Pharaoh: ‘I am not giving 350 you straw. 5:11 You 351 go get straw for yourselves wherever you can 352 find it, because there will be no reduction at all in your workload.’” 5:12 So the people spread out 353 through all the land of Egypt to collect stubble for straw. 5:13 The slave masters were pressuring 354 them, saying, “Complete 355 your work for each day, just like when there was straw!” 5:14 The Israelite foremen whom Pharaoh’s slave masters had set over them were beaten and were asked, 356 “Why did you not complete your requirement for brickmaking as in the past – both yesterday and today?” 357 5:15 358
The Israelite foremen went and cried out to Pharaoh, “Why are you treating 359 your servants this way? 5:16 No straw is given to your servants, but we are told, 360 ‘Make bricks!’ Your servants are even 361 being beaten, but the fault 362 is with your people.”
5:17 But Pharaoh replied, 363 “You are slackers! Slackers! 364 That is why you are saying, ‘Let us go sacrifice to the Lord.’ 5:18 So now, get back to work! 365 You will not be given straw, but you must still produce 366 your quota 367 of bricks!” 5:19 The Israelite foremen saw 368 that they 369 were in trouble when they were told, 370 “You must not reduce the daily quota of your bricks.”
5:20 When they went out from Pharaoh, they encountered Moses and Aaron standing there to meet them, 371 5:21 and they said to them, “May the Lord look on you and judge, 372 because you have made us stink 373 in the opinion of 374 Pharaoh and his servants, 375 so that you have given them an excuse to kill us!” 376 5:22
The Assurance of Deliverance 377
Moses returned 378 to the Lord, and said, “Lord, 379 why have you caused trouble for this people? 380 Why did you ever 381 send me? 5:23 From the time I went to speak to Pharaoh in your name, he has caused trouble 382 for this people, and you have certainly not rescued 383 them!” 384
6:1 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Now you will see what I will do to Pharaoh, 385 for compelled by my strong hand 386 he will release them, and by my strong hand he will drive them out of his land.” 387
6:2 God spoke 388 to Moses and said to him, “I am the Lord. 389 6:3 I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as 390 God Almighty, 391 but by 392 my name ‘the Lord’ 393 I was not known to them. 394 6:4 I also established my covenant with them 395 to give them the land of Canaan, where they were living as resident foreigners. 396 6:5 I 397 have also heard 398 the groaning of the Israelites, whom the Egyptians are enslaving, 399 and I have remembered my covenant. 400 6:6 Therefore, tell the Israelites, ‘I am the Lord. I will bring you out 401 from your enslavement to 402 the Egyptians, I will rescue you from the hard labor they impose, 403 and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments. 6:7 I will take you to myself for a people, and I will be your God. 404 Then you will know that I am the Lord your God, who brought you out from your enslavement to 405 the Egyptians. 6:8 I will bring you to the land I swore to give 406 to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob – and I will give it to you 407 as a possession. I am the Lord!’” 6:9 408
Moses told this 409 to the Israelites, but they did not listen to him 410 because of their discouragement 411 and hard labor. 6:10 Then the Lord said to Moses, 6:11 “Go, tell Pharaoh king of Egypt that he must release 412 the Israelites from his land.” 6:12 But Moses replied to 413 the Lord, “If the Israelites did not listen to me, then 414 how will Pharaoh listen to me, since 415 I speak with difficulty?” 416
6:13 The Lord spoke 417 to Moses and Aaron and gave them a charge 418 for the Israelites and Pharaoh king of Egypt to bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt. 6:14
The Ancestry of the Deliverer 419
These are the heads of their fathers’ households: 420
The sons 421 of Reuben, the firstborn son of Israel, were Hanoch and Pallu, Hezron and Carmi. These were the clans 422 of Reuben.
6:15 The sons of Simeon were Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jakin, Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman. These were the clans of Simeon.
6:16 Now these are the names of the sons of Levi, according to their records: 423 Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. (The length of Levi’s life was 137 years.)
6:17 The sons of Gershon, by their families, were Libni and Shimei.
6:18 The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. (The length of Kohath’s life was 133 years.)
6:19 The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi. These were the clans of Levi, according to their records.
6:20 Amram married 424 his father’s sister Jochebed, and she bore him Aaron and Moses. (The length of Amram’s life was 137 years.)
6:21 The sons of Izhar were Korah, Nepheg, and Zikri.
6:22 The sons of Uzziel were Mishael, Elzaphan, and Sithri.
6:23 Aaron married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab and sister of Nahshon, and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.
6:24 The sons of Korah were Assir, Elkanah, and Abiasaph. These were the Korahite clans.
6:25 Now Eleazar son of Aaron married one of the daughters of Putiel and she bore him Phinehas.
These are the heads of the fathers’ households 425 of Levi according to their clans.
6:26 It was the same Aaron and Moses to whom the Lord said, “Bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments.” 426 6:27 They were the men who were speaking to Pharaoh king of Egypt, in order to bring the Israelites out of Egypt. It was the same Moses and Aaron. 6:28
The Authentication of the Word 427
When 428 the Lord spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt, 6:29 he said to him, 429 “I am the Lord. Tell 430 Pharaoh king of Egypt all that 431 I am telling 432 you.” 6:30 But Moses said before the Lord, “Since I speak with difficulty, 433 why should Pharaoh listen to me?”
7:1 So the Lord said to Moses, “See, I have made you like God 434 to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet. 435 7:2 You are to speak 436 everything I command you, 437 and your brother Aaron is to tell Pharaoh that he must release 438 the Israelites from his land. 7:3 But I will harden 439 Pharaoh’s heart, and although I will multiply 440 my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt, 7:4 Pharaoh will not listen to you. 441 I will reach into 442 Egypt and bring out my regiments, 443 my people the Israelites, from the land of Egypt with great acts of judgment. 7:5 Then 444 the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord, when I extend my hand 445 over Egypt and bring the Israelites out from among them.
7:6 And Moses and Aaron did so; they did just as the Lord commanded them. 7:7 Now Moses was eighty years old and Aaron was eighty-three years old when they spoke to Pharaoh.
7:8 The Lord said 446 to Moses and Aaron, 447 7:9 “When Pharaoh says to you, ‘Do 448 a miracle,’ and you say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down 449 before Pharaoh,’ it will become 450 a snake.” 7:10 When 451 Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh, they did so, just as the Lord had commanded them – Aaron threw 452 down his staff before Pharaoh and his servants and it became a snake. 453 7:11 Then Pharaoh also summoned wise men and sorcerers, 454 and the magicians 455 of Egypt by their secret arts 456 did the same thing. 7:12 Each man 457 threw down his staff, and the staffs became snakes. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs. 7:13 Yet Pharaoh’s heart became hard, 458 and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 7:14
The First Blow: Water to Blood 459
The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is hard; 460 he refuses to release 461 the people. 7:15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning when 462 he goes out to the water. Position yourself 463 to meet him by the edge of the Nile, 464 and take 465 in your hand the staff 466 that was turned into a snake. 7:16 Tell him, ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to you to say, 467 “Release my people, that they may serve me 468 in the desert!” But until now 469 you have not listened. 470 7:17 Thus says the Lord: “By this you will know that I am the Lord: I am going to strike 471 the water of the Nile with the staff that is in my hand, and it will be turned into blood. 472 7:18 Fish 473 in the Nile will die, the Nile will stink, and the Egyptians will be unable 474 to drink water from the Nile.”’” 7:19 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your staff and stretch out your hand over Egypt’s waters – over their rivers, over their canals, 475 over their ponds, and over all their reservoirs 476 – so that it becomes 477 blood.’ There will be blood everywhere in 478 the land of Egypt, even in wooden and stone containers.” 7:20 Moses and Aaron did so, 479 just as the Lord had commanded. Moses raised 480 the staff 481 and struck the water that was in the Nile right before the eyes 482 of Pharaoh and his servants, 483 and all the water that was in the Nile was turned to blood. 484 7:21 When the fish 485 that were in the Nile died, the Nile began 486 to stink, so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood 487 everywhere in the land of Egypt! 7:22 But the magicians of Egypt did the same 488 by their secret arts, and so 489 Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 490 and he refused to listen to Moses and Aaron 491 – just as the Lord had predicted. 7:23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house. He did not pay any attention to this. 492 7:24 All the Egyptians dug around the Nile for water to drink, 493 because they could not drink the water of the Nile. 7:25
The Second Blow: Frogs 494
Seven full days passed 495 after the Lord struck 496 the Nile. 8:1 497 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord: “Release my people in order that they may serve me! 8:2 But if you refuse to release them, then I am going to plague 498 all your territory with frogs. 499 8:3 The Nile will swarm 500 with frogs, and they will come up and go into your house, in your bedroom, and on your bed, and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens and your kneading troughs. 501 8:4 Frogs 502 will come up against you, your people, and all your servants.”’” 503
8:5 The Lord spoke to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your hand with your staff 504 over the rivers, over the canals, and over the ponds, and bring the frogs up over the land of Egypt.’” 8:6 So Aaron extended his hand over the waters of Egypt, and frogs 505 came up and covered the land of Egypt.
8:7 The magicians did the same 506 with their secret arts and brought up frogs on the land of Egypt too. 507
8:8 Then Pharaoh summoned 508 Moses and Aaron and said, “Pray 509 to the Lord that he may take the frogs away 510 from me and my people, and I will release 511 the people that they may sacrifice 512 to the Lord.” 8:9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “You may have the honor over me 513 – when shall I pray for you, your servants, and your people, for the frogs to be removed 514 from you and your houses, so that 515 they will be left 516 only in the Nile?” 8:10 He said, “Tomorrow.” And Moses said, 517 “It will be 518 as you say, 519 so that you may know that there is no one like the Lord our God. 8:11 The frogs will depart from you, your houses, your servants, and your people; they will be left only in the Nile.”
8:12 Then Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried 520 to the Lord because of 521 the frogs that he had brought on 522 Pharaoh. 8:13 The Lord did as Moses asked 523 – the 524 frogs died out of the houses, the villages, and the fields. 8:14 The Egyptians 525 piled them in countless heaps, 526 and the land stank. 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was relief, 527 he hardened 528 his heart and did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 529 8:16
The Third Blow: Gnats 530
The Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your staff and strike the dust of the ground, and it will become 531 gnats 532 throughout all the land of Egypt.’” 8:17 They did so; Aaron extended his hand with his staff, he struck the dust of the ground, and it became gnats on people 533 and on animals. All the dust of the ground became gnats throughout all the land of Egypt. 8:18 When 534 the magicians attempted 535 to bring forth gnats by their secret arts, they could not. So there were gnats on people and on animals. 8:19 The magicians said 536 to Pharaoh, “It is the finger 537 of God!” But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 538 and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 8:20
The Fourth Blow: Flies 539
The Lord 540 said to Moses, “Get up early in the morning and position yourself before Pharaoh as he goes out to the water, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, “Release my people that they may serve me! 8:21 If you do not release 541 my people, then I am going to send 542 swarms of flies 543 on you and on your servants and on your people and in your houses. The houses of the Egyptians will be full of flies, and even the ground they stand on. 544 8:22 But on that day I will mark off 545 the land of Goshen, where my people are staying, 546 so that no swarms of flies will be there, that you may know that I am the Lord in the midst of this land. 547 8:23 I will put a division 548 between my people and your people. This sign will take place 549 tomorrow.”’” 8:24 The Lord did so; a 550 thick 551 swarm of flies came into 552 Pharaoh’s house and into the houses 553 of his servants, and throughout the whole land of Egypt the land was ruined 554 because of the swarms of flies.
8:25 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God within the land.” 555 8:26 But Moses said, “That would not be the right thing to do, 556 for the sacrifices we make 557 to the Lord our God would be an abomination 558 to the Egyptians. 559 If we make sacrifices that are an abomination to the Egyptians right before their eyes, 560 will they not stone us? 561 8:27 We must go 562 on a three-day journey 563 into the desert and sacrifice 564 to the Lord our God, just as he is telling us.” 565
8:28 Pharaoh said, “I will release you 566 so that you may sacrifice 567 to the Lord your God in the desert. Only you must not go very far. 568 Do 569 pray for me.”
8:29 Moses said, “I am going to go out 570 from you and pray to the Lord, and the swarms of flies will go away from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people tomorrow. Only do not let Pharaoh deal falsely again 571 by not releasing 572 the people to sacrifice to the Lord.” 8:30 So Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 8:31 and the Lord did as Moses asked 573 – he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people. Not one remained! 8:32 But Pharaoh hardened 574 his heart this time also and did not release the people. 9:1
The Fifth Blow: Disease 575
Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, “Release my people that they may serve me! 9:2 For if you refuse to release them 576 and continue holding them, 577 9:3 then the hand of the Lord will surely bring 578 a very terrible plague 579 on your livestock in the field, on the horses, the donkeys, the camels, 580 the herds, and the flocks. 9:4 But the Lord will distinguish 581 between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, and nothing 582 will die of all that the Israelites have.”’” 583
9:5 The Lord set 584 an appointed time, saying, “Tomorrow the Lord will do this 585 in the land.” 9:6 And the Lord did this 586 on the next day; 587 all 588 the livestock of the Egyptians 589 died, but of the Israelites’ livestock not one died. 9:7 Pharaoh sent representatives to investigate, 590 and indeed, not even one of the livestock of Israel had died. But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 591 and he did not release the people. 9:8
The Sixth Blow: Boils 592
Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot 593 from a furnace, and have Moses throw it 594 into the air while Pharaoh is watching. 595 9:9 It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt and will cause boils to break out and fester 596 on both people and animals in all the land of Egypt.” 9:10 So they took soot from a furnace and stood before Pharaoh, Moses threw it into the air, and it caused festering boils to break out on both people and animals.
9:11 The magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for boils were on the magicians and on all the Egyptians. 9:12 But the Lord hardened 597 Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted to Moses. 9:13
The Seventh Blow: Hail 598
The Lord said 599 to Moses, “Get up early in the morning, stand 600 before Pharaoh, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: “Release my people so that they may serve me! 9:14 For this time I will send all my plagues 601 on your very self 602 and on your servants and your people, so that you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth. 9:15 For by now I could have stretched out 603 my hand and struck you and your people with plague, and you would have been destroyed 604 from the earth. 9:16 But 605 for this purpose I have caused you to stand: 606 to show you 607 my strength, and so that my name may be declared 608 in all the earth. 9:17 You are still exalting 609 yourself against my people by 610 not releasing them. 9:18 I am going to cause very severe hail to rain down 611 about this time tomorrow, such hail as has never occurred 612 in Egypt from the day it was founded 613 until now. 9:19 So now, send instructions 614 to gather 615 your livestock and all your possessions in the fields to a safe place. Every person 616 or animal caught 617 in the field and not brought into the house – the hail will come down on them, and they will die!”’”
9:20 Those 618 of Pharaoh’s servants who feared the word of the Lord hurried to bring their 619 servants and livestock into the houses, 9:21 but those 620 who did not take 621 the word of the Lord seriously left their servants and their cattle 622 in the field.
9:22 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sky 623 that there may be 624 hail in all the land of Egypt, on people and on animals, 625 and on everything that grows 626 in the field in the land of Egypt.” 9:23 When Moses extended 627 his staff toward the sky, the Lord 628 sent thunder 629 and hail, and fire fell to the earth; 630 so the Lord caused hail to rain down on the land of Egypt. 9:24 Hail fell 631 and fire mingled 632 with the hail; the hail was so severe 633 that there had not been any like it 634 in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation. 9:25 The hail struck everything in the open fields, both 635 people and animals, throughout all the land of Egypt. The hail struck everything that grows 636 in the field, and it broke all the trees of the field to pieces. 9:26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived, was there no hail.
9:27 So Pharaoh sent and summoned Moses and Aaron and said to them, “I have sinned this time! 637 The Lord is righteous, and I and my people are guilty. 638 9:28 Pray to the Lord, for the mighty 639 thunderings and hail are too much! 640 I will release you and you will stay no longer.” 641
9:29 Moses said to him, “When I leave the city 642 I will spread my hands to the Lord, the thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth belongs to the Lord. 643 9:30 But as for you 644 and your servants, I know that you do not yet fear 645 the Lord God.”
9:31 (Now the 646 flax and the barley were struck 647 by the hail, 648 for the barley had ripened 649 and the flax 650 was in bud. 9:32 But the wheat and the spelt 651 were not struck, for they are later crops.) 652
9:33 So Moses left Pharaoh, went out of the city, and spread out his hands to the Lord, and the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain stopped pouring on the earth. 9:34 When Pharaoh saw 653 that the rain and hail and thunder ceased, he sinned again: 654 both he and his servants hardened 655 their hearts. 9:35 So Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 656 and he did not release the Israelites, as the Lord had predicted through Moses. 10:1
The Eighth Blow: Locusts 657
The Lord said 658 to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, in order to display 659 these signs of mine before him, 660 10:2 and in order that in the hearing of your son and your grandson you may tell 661 how I made fools 662 of the Egyptians 663 and about 664 my signs that I displayed 665 among them, so that you may know 666 that I am the Lord.”
10:3 So Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh and told him, “Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: ‘How long do you refuse 667 to humble yourself before me? 668 Release my people so that they may serve me! 10:4 But if you refuse to release my people, I am going to bring 669 locusts 670 into your territory 671 tomorrow. 10:5 They will cover 672 the surface 673 of the earth, so that you 674 will be unable to see the ground. They will eat the remainder of what escaped 675 – what is left over 676 for you – from the hail, and they will eat every tree that grows for you from the field. 10:6 They will fill your houses, the houses of your servants, and all the houses of Egypt, such as 677 neither 678 your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen since they have been 679 in the land until this day!’” Then Moses 680 turned and went out from Pharaoh.
10:7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long 681 will this man be a menace 682 to us? Release the people so that they may serve the Lord their God. Do you not know 683 that Egypt is destroyed?”
10:8 So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve the Lord your God. Exactly who is going with you?” 684 10:9 Moses said, “We will go with our young and our old, with our sons and our daughters, and with our sheep and our cattle we will go, because we are to hold 685 a pilgrim feast for the Lord.”
10:10 He said to them, “The Lord will need to be with you 686 if I release you and your dependents! 687 Watch out! 688 Trouble is right in front of you! 689 10:11 No! 690 Go, you men 691 only, and serve the Lord, for that 692 is what you want.” 693 Then Moses and Aaron 694 were driven 695 out of Pharaoh’s presence.
10:12 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand over the land of Egypt for 696 the locusts, that they may come up over the land of Egypt and eat everything that grows 697 in the ground, everything that the hail has left.” 10:13 So Moses extended his staff over the land of Egypt, and then the Lord 698 brought 699 an east wind on the land all that day and all night. 700 The morning came, 701 and the east wind had brought up 702 the locusts! 10:14 The locusts went up over all the land of Egypt and settled down in all the territory 703 of Egypt. It was very severe; 704 there had been no locusts like them before, nor will there be such ever again. 705 10:15 They covered 706 the surface 707 of all the ground, so that the ground became dark with them, 708 and they ate all the vegetation of the ground and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Nothing green remained on the trees or on anything that grew in the fields throughout the whole land of Egypt. 10:16 709
Then Pharaoh quickly 710 summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “I have sinned 711 against the Lord your God and against you! 10:17 So now, forgive my sin this time only, and pray to the Lord your God that he would only 712 take this death 713 away from me.” 10:18 Moses 714 went out 715 from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 10:19 and the Lord turned a very strong west wind, 716 and it picked up the locusts and blew them into the Red Sea. 717 Not one locust remained in all the territory of Egypt. 10:20 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites. 10:21
The Ninth Blow: Darkness 718
The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward heaven 719 so that there may be 720 darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness so thick it can be felt.” 721
10:22 So Moses extended his hand toward heaven, and there was absolute darkness 722 throughout the land of Egypt for three days. 723 10:23 No one 724 could see 725 another person, and no one could rise from his place for three days. But the Israelites had light in the places where they lived.
10:24 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and said, “Go, serve the Lord – only your flocks and herds will be detained. Even your families 726 may go with you.”
10:25 But Moses said, “Will you also 727 provide us 728 with sacrifices and burnt offerings that we may present them 729 to the Lord our God? 10:26 Our livestock must 730 also go with us! Not a hoof is to be left behind! For we must take 731 these animals 732 to serve the Lord our God. Until we arrive there, we do not know what we must use to serve the Lord.” 733
10:27 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he was not willing to release them. 10:28 Pharaoh said to him, “Go from me! 734 Watch out for yourself! Do not appear before me again, 735 for when 736 you see my face you will die!” 10:29 Moses said, “As you wish! 737 I will not see your face again.” 738 11:1
The Tenth Blow: Death 739
The Lord said to Moses, “I will bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt; after that he will release you from this place. When he releases you, 740 he will drive you out completely 741 from this place. 11:2 Instruct 742 the people that each man and each woman is to request 743 from his or her neighbor 744 items of silver and gold.” 745
11:3 (Now the Lord granted the people favor with 746 the Egyptians. Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, respected by Pharaoh’s servants and by the Egyptian people.) 747
11:4 Moses said, “Thus says the Lord: ‘About midnight 748 I will go throughout Egypt, 749 11:5 and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh 750 who sits on his throne, to the firstborn son of the slave girl who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 11:6 There will be a great cry throughout the whole land of Egypt, such as there has never been, 751 nor ever will be again. 752 11:7 But against any of the Israelites not even a dog will bark 753 against either people or animals, 754 so that you may know that the Lord distinguishes 755 between Egypt and Israel.’ 11:8 All these your servants will come down to me and bow down 756 to me, saying, ‘Go, you and all the people who follow 757 you,’ and after that I will go out.” Then Moses 758 went out from Pharaoh in great anger.
11:9 The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not listen to you, so that my wonders 759 may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”
11:10 So Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, but the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release the Israelites from his land. 12:1
The Institution of the Passover 760
The Lord said 761 to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 762 12:2 “This month is to be your beginning of months; it will be your first month of the year. 763 12:3 Tell the whole community of Israel, ‘In the tenth day of this month they each 764 must take a lamb 765 for themselves according to their families 766 – a lamb for each household. 767 12:4 If any household is too small 768 for a lamb, 769 the man 770 and his next-door neighbor 771 are to take 772 a lamb according to the number of people – you will make your count for the lamb according to how much each one can eat. 773 12:5 Your lamb must be 774 perfect, 775 a male, one year old; 776 you may take 777 it from the sheep or from the goats. 12:6 You must care for it 778 until the fourteenth day of this month, and then the whole community 779 of Israel will kill it around sundown. 780 12:7 They will take some of the blood and put it on the two side posts and top of the doorframe of the houses where they will eat it. 12:8 They will eat the meat the same night; 781 they will eat it roasted over the fire with bread made without yeast 782 and with bitter herbs. 12:9 Do not eat it raw 783 or boiled in water, but roast it over the fire with its head, its legs, and its entrails. 12:10 You must leave nothing until morning, but you must burn with fire whatever remains of it until morning. 12:11 This is how you are to eat it – dressed to travel, 784 your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. You are to eat it in haste. It is the Lord’s Passover. 785
12:12 I will pass through 786 the land of Egypt in the same 787 night, and I will attack 788 all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both of humans and of animals, 789 and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment. 790 I am the Lord. 12:13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, so that when I see 791 the blood I will pass over you, 792 and this plague 793 will not fall on you to destroy you 794 when I attack 795 the land of Egypt. 796
12:14 This day will become 797 a memorial 798 for you, and you will celebrate it as a festival 799 to the Lord – you will celebrate it perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 800 12:15 For seven days 801 you must eat 802 bread made without yeast. 803 Surely 804 on the first day you must put away yeast from your houses because anyone who eats bread made with yeast 805 from the first day to the seventh day will be cut off 806 from Israel.
12:16 On the first day there will be a holy convocation, 807 and on the seventh day there will be a holy convocation for you. You must do no work of any kind 808 on them, only what every person will eat – that alone may be prepared for you. 12:17 So you will keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because on this very 809 day I brought your regiments 810 out from the land of Egypt, and so you must keep this day perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 811 12:18 In the first month, 812 from the fourteenth day of the month, in the evening, you will eat bread made without yeast until the twenty-first day of the month in the evening. 12:19 For seven days 813 yeast must not be found in your houses, for whoever eats what is made with yeast – that person 814 will be cut off from the community of Israel, whether a foreigner 815 or one born in the land. 12:20 You will not eat anything made with yeast; in all the places where you live you must eat bread made without yeast.’”
12:21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel, and told them, “Go and select 816 for yourselves a lamb or young goat 817 for your families, and kill the Passover animals. 818 12:22 Take a branch of hyssop, 819 dip it in the blood that is in the basin, 820 and apply to the top of the doorframe and the two side posts some of the blood that is in the basin. Not one of you is to go out 821 the door of his house until morning. 12:23 For the Lord will pass through to strike Egypt, and when he sees 822 the blood on the top of the doorframe and the two side posts, then the Lord will pass over the door, and he will not permit the destroyer 823 to enter your houses to strike you. 824 12:24 You must observe this event as an ordinance for you and for your children forever. 12:25 When you enter the land that the Lord will give to you, just as he said, you must observe 825 this ceremony. 12:26 When your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ 826 – 12:27 then you will say, ‘It is the sacrifice 827 of the Lord’s Passover, when he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when he struck 828 Egypt and delivered our households.’” The people bowed down low 829 to the ground, 12:28 and the Israelites went away and did exactly as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron. 830 12:29
The Deliverance from Egypt 831
It happened 832 at midnight – the Lord attacked all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the prison, and all the firstborn of the cattle. 12:30 Pharaoh got up 833 in the night, 834 along with all his servants and all Egypt, and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was no house 835 in which there was not someone dead. 12:31 Pharaoh 836 summoned Moses and Aaron in the night and said, “Get up, get out 837 from among my people, both you and the Israelites! Go, serve the Lord as you have requested! 838 12:32 Also, take your flocks and your herds, just as you have requested, and leave. But bless me also.” 839
12:33 The Egyptians were urging 840 the people on, in order to send them out of the land quickly, 841 for they were saying, “We are all dead!” 12:34 So the people took their dough before the yeast was added, 842 with their kneading troughs bound up in their clothing on their shoulders. 12:35 Now the Israelites had done 843 as Moses told them – they had requested from the Egyptians 844 silver and gold items and clothing. 12:36 The Lord 845 gave the people favor 846 in the sight of the Egyptians, and they gave them whatever they wanted, 847 and so they plundered Egypt. 848
12:37 The Israelites journeyed 849 from Rameses 850 to Sukkoth. There were about 600,000 men 851 on foot, plus their dependants. 852 12:38 A mixed multitude 853 also went up with them, and flocks and herds – a very large number of cattle. 854 12:39 They baked cakes of bread without yeast using the dough they had brought from Egypt, for it was made without yeast – because they were thrust out 855 of Egypt and were not able to delay, they 856 could not prepare 857 food for themselves either.
12:40 Now the length of time the Israelites lived in Egypt was 430 years. 858 12:41 At the end of the 430 years, on the very day, all the regiments 859 of the Lord went out of the land of Egypt. 12:42 It was a night of vigil for the Lord to bring them out from the land of Egypt, 860 and so 861 on this night all Israel is to keep the vigil 862 to the Lord for generations to come. 12:43
Participation in the Passover 863
The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover. No foreigner may 864 share in eating it. 865 12:44 But everyone’s servant who is bought for money, after you have circumcised him, may eat it. 12:45 A foreigner and a hired worker must not eat it. 12:46 It must be eaten in one house; you must not bring any of the meat outside the house, and you must not break a bone of it. 12:47 The whole community of Israel must observe it.
12:48 “When a foreigner lives 866 with you and wants to observe the Passover to the Lord, all his males must be circumcised, 867 and then he may approach and observe it, and he will be like one who is born in the land 868 – but no uncircumcised person may eat of it. 12:49 The same law will apply 869 to the person who is native-born and to the foreigner who lives among you.”
12:50 So all the Israelites did exactly as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron. 870 12:51 And on this very day the Lord brought the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their regiments.